Three trials were conducted to evaluate the performances of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, in low salinities. The median lethal concentration (96 h LC50) of salinity was determined by trimmed Spearman-Karber method using survival data of fish (18.9 ± 0.2 g) collected after 96 h from acclimation to 2, 4, 8, and 32 ppt salinities in 800 L tanks (n = 3), while the serum osmolality of fish (74.1 ± 3.9 g) was determined after 48 h from acclimation to 6, 8, 16, 24, and 32 ppt salinities in 150 L tanks (n = 3). The growth trial was conducted for 6 weeks in 800 L tanks to determine the growth and survival of fish (18.8 ± 0.2 g) at 8 ppt salinity compared to the control (32 ppt salinity). At the conclusion, the isosmotic point of fish was estimated as 357.2 mmol/kg (correspond to 11.0 ppt salinity), while the 96 h LC50 was estimated as 5.65 ppt salinity. No significant differences were noted for survival and FCR of fish reared in 8 and 32 ppt salinities. However, growth was significantly lower in fish reared in 8 ppt salinity compared to the fish reared in 32 ppt salinity. The reduced growth could be, at least partially, due to the increased osmoregulatory energy expenditure at lower salinities.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Similar content being viewed by others
The data associated with this manuscript entitled “Effect of salinity on growth, survival, and serum osmolality of Red Snapper, Lutjanus campechanus” are available at Dr. Allen Davis Laboratory, School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences, Auburn University, AL, USA, and could be access based on the permission of Dr. Allen Davis (https://sfaas.auburn.edu/davis/).
Alcalá-Carrillo M, Castillo-Vargasmachuca SG, Ponce-Palafox JT (2016) Effects of temperature and salinity on growth and survival of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus juvenile. Lat Am J Aquat Res 44(1):159–164
Atwood HL, Young SP, Tomasso JR Jr, Smith TI (2001) Salinity and temperature tolerances of black sea bass juveniles. N Am J Aquac 63(4):285–288
Boeuf G, Payan P (2001) How should salinity influence fish growth? Com Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 130(4):411–423
Castille FL Jr, Lawrence AL (1981) The effect of salinity on the osmotic, sodium and chloride concentrations in the hemolymph of euryhaline shrimp of the genus Penaeus. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol 68(1):75–80
Castillo-Vargasmachuca S, Ponce-Palafox JT, Rodríguez-Chávez G, Arredondo-Figueroa JL, Chávez-Ortiz E, Seidavi A (2013) Effects of temperature and salinity on growth and survival of the Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru (Pisces: Lutjanidae) juvenile. Lat Am J Aquat Res 41(5):1013–1018
Chapin A, Szedlmayer S, Phelps R (2009) Survival and movement of hatchery-reared red snapper on artificial habitats in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Fish Manage Ecol 16(1):28–36
Cotton CF, Walker RL, Recicar TC (2003) Effects of temperature and salinity on growth of juvenile black sea bass, with implications for aquaculture. N Am J Aquac 65(4):330–338
Crocker P, Arnold C, DeBoer J, Holt G (1983) Blood osmolality shift in juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus L. exposed to fresh water. J Fish Biol 23(3):315–319
Cuesta A, Laiz-Carrión R, del Río MM, Meseguer J, Mancera JM, Esteban MÁ (2005) Salinity influences the humoral immune parameters of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol 18(3):255–261
Davis DA, Miller CL, Phelps R (2005) Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal in the production diets of juvenile red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus. J World Aquaculture Soc 36(1):114–119
Deane EE, Woo NY (2009) Modulation of fish growth hormone levels by salinity, temperature, pollutants and aquaculture related stress: a review. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries 19(1):97–120
Dutil J-D, Lambert Y, Boucher E (1997) Does higher growth rate in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at low salinity result from lower standard metabolic rate or increased protein digestibility? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54(S1):99–103
Edwards, S. L., & Marshall, W. S. (2012). Principles and patterns of osmoregulation and euryhalinity in fishes. In Fish physiology (Vol. 32, pp. 1–44): Elsevier.
Erisman, B. E., Bolser, D. G., Ilich, A., Frasier, K. E., Glaspie, C. N., Moreno, P. T., . . . Fisheries. (2020). A meta-analytical review of the effects of environmental and ecological drivers on the abundance of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in the US Gulf of Mexico. Reviews in Fish Biology, 1–26.
Flik G, Kaneko T, Greco A, Li J, Fenwick J (1997) Sodium dependent ion transporters in trout gills. Fish Physiol Biochem 17(1–6):385–396
Gabriel U, Anyanwu P, Akinrotimi A (2007) Comparative effects of different acclimation media on haematological characteristics of Brackish water tilapia, Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rupell, 1852). J Fish Int 2(3):195–199
Galkanda-Arachchige HSC, Roy LA, Davis DA (2020) Evaluation of an alternative salt mixture to culture Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in inland aquaculture. Aquac Res 51(9):3540–3550
Gallaway, B., Longnecker, M., Cole, J., & Meyer, R. (1998). Estimates of shrimp trawl bycatch of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in the Gulf of Mexico. Paper presented at the 15th Lowell Wakefield Fisheries Symposium: Fishery Stock Assessment Models for the 21st Century.
Gallaway BJ, Cole JG (1999) Reduction of juvenile red snapper bycatch in the US Gulf of Mexico shrimp trawl fishery. North Am J Fish Manag 19(2):342–355
Gallaway BJ, Raborn S, Picariello L, Putman NF (2020) Changes in shrimping effort in the Gulf of Mexico and the impacts to Red Snapper. Iscience 23(5):101111
Gallaway BJ, Szedlmayer ST, Gazey WJ (2009) A life history review for red snapper in the Gulf of Mexico with an evaluation of the importance of offshore petroleum platforms and other artificial reefs. Rev Fish Sci 17(1):48–67
Gilles R, Delpire E (1995) Variations in salinity, osmolarity and water availability. Oxford University Press Heidelberg, In Handbook of Comparative Physiology
Gillig D, Griffin WL, Ozuna T Jr (2001) A bioeconomic assessment of Gulf of Mexico red snapper management policies. Trans Am Fish Soc 130(1):117–129
Greco AM, Gilmour KM, Fenwick JC, Perry SF (1995) The effects of softwater acclimation on respiratory gas transfer in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. J Exp Biol 198(12):2557–2567
Gutiérrez-Sigeros I, Ibarra-Castro L, Alvarez-Lajonchère L, Sanchez-Zamora A (2018) Natural spawning and scaling-up of yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus): larval rearing for the mass production of juveniles. Aquaculture 491:252–257
Hamilton MA, Russo RC, Thurston RV (1977) Trimmed Spearman-Karber method for estimating median lethal concentrations in toxicity bioassays. J Environ Sci Technol 11(7):714–719
Ibarra-Castro L, Ochoa-Bojórquez MO, Sánchez-Téllez JL, Rojo-Cebreros AH, Alvarez-Lajonchère L (2020a) Advances in spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus, Steindachner, 1869) juveniles production. In Press, Investigaciones Marinas
Ibarra-Castro, L., Ochoa-Bojórquez, M. O., Sánchez-Téllez, J. L., Rojo-Cebreros, A. H., & Alvarez-Lajonchère, L. (2020b). A new efficient method for the mass production of juvenile spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. Aquaculture Reports, In Press.
Imsland AK, Gústavsson A, Gunnarsson S, Foss A, Árnason J, Arnarson I, Thorarensen H (2008) Effects of reduced salinities on growth, feed conversion efficiency and blood physiology of juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Aquaculture 274(2–4):254–259
Kammerer BD, Cech JJ Jr, Kültz D (2010) Rapid changes in plasma cortisol, osmolality, and respiration in response to salinity stress in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Comp Biochem Physiol a: Mol Integr Physiol 157(3):260–265
Kültz D (2015) Physiological mechanisms used by fish to cope with salinity stress. J Exp Biol 218(12):1907–1914
Lambert Y, Dutil J-D, Munro J (1994) Effects of intermediate and low salinity conditions on growth rate and food conversion of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51(7):1569–1576
McCormick, J., Stokes, G., Jensen, K., & Leino, R. (1987). Fish blood osmolality, gill histology and oocyte atresia as early warning acid stress indicators. Annales de la Societe Royale Zoologique de Belgique (Belgium). Annalen van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Dierkunde. v. 117 (suppl. 1).
Miller CL, Allen Davis D, Phelps RP (2005) The effects of dietary protein and lipid on growth and body composition of juvenile and sub-adult red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Poey, 1860). Aquac Res 36(1):52–60
Perry SF (1998) Relationships between branchial chloride cells and gas transfer in freshwater fish. J Com Biochem Physiol a: Mol Int Physiol 119(1):9–16
Phelps R, Papanikos N, Bourque B, Bueno F, Hastey R, Maus D, Davis D (2009) Spawning of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in response to hormonal induction or environmental control in a hatchery setting. Rev Fish Sci 17(2):149–155
R Core Team. (2019). R: A language and environment for statistical computing (Version 3.6.2): R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from https://www.R-project.org/
Rahmah S, Liew HJ, Napi N, Rahmat SA (2020) Metabolic cost of acute and chronic salinity response of hybrid red tilapia Oreochromis sp. larvae. Aquaculture Reports 16:100233
Resley MJ, Webb KA Jr, Holt GJ (2006) Growth and survival of juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum, at different salinities in a recirculating aquaculture system. Aquaculture 253(1–4):398–407
Rhodes MA, Phelps RP (2008) Evaluation of the ciliated protozoa, Fabrea salina as a first food for larval red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus in a large scale rearing experiment. J Appl Aquac 20(2):120–133
Roast SD, Widdows J, Jones MB (2001) Effects of salinity and chemical speciation on cadmium accumulation and toxicity to two mysid species. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(5):1078–1084
Rombough P (1999) The gill of fish larvae. Is it primarily a respiratory or an ionoregulatory structure? J Fish Biol 55:186–204
Saillant, E. A., Leclercq, E., Bardon-Albaret, A., Sarkisian, B., Apeitos, A., Brown-Peterson, N., Gatlin, D. (2013). Development of aquaculture of the red snapper Lutjanus campechanus: research on larval nutrition. Proceedings of the 65th Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute.
Sampaio LA, Bianchini A (2002) Salinity effects on osmoregulation and growth of the euryhaline flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 269(2):187–196
SEDAR. (2018). Gulf of Mexico red snapper stock assessment report. Retrieved from North Charleston, South Carolina:
Serrano-Pinto V, Caraveo-Patiño J (1999) Survival of amarillo snapper Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters 1869) at different salinities in captivity. Aquac Res 30(6):467
Soegianto, A., Adhim, M. d. H., Zainuddin, A., Putranto, T. W. C., & Irawan, B. (2017). Effect of different salinity on serum osmolality, ion levels and hematological parameters of East Java strain tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Marine and freshwater behaviour and physiology, 50(2), 105-113
Soofiani N, Hawkins A (1982) Energetic costs at different levels of feeding in juvenile cod, Gadus morhua L. J Fish Biol 21(5):577–592
Takei Y, Hiroi J, Takahashi H, Sakamoto T (2014) Diverse mechanisms for body fluid regulation in teleost fishes. Am J Physio Regul Integr Comp Physiol 307(7):R778–R792
Tang Y, Nelson J, Reidy S, Kerr S, Boutilier R (1994) A reappraisal of activity metabolism in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). J Fish Biol 44(1):1–10
Tsui W-C, Chen J-C, Cheng S-Y (2012) The effects of a sudden salinity change on cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels in grouper Epinephelus malabaricus. Fish Physiol Biochem 38(5):1323–1329
Usher M, Talbot C, Eddy F (1990) Effects of transfer to seawater on digestion and gut function in Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 90(1):85–96
Varsamos S, Nebel C, Charmantier G (2005) Ontogeny of osmoregulation in postembryonic fish: a review. Comp Biochem Physiol a: Mol Integr Physiol 141(4):401–429
Veiga MPT, Gutierre SM, Castellano GC, Freire CA (2016) Tolerance of high and low salinity in the intertidal gastropod Stramonita brasiliensis (Muricidae): behaviour and maintenance of tissue water content. J Molluscan Stud 82(1):154–160
Waters JR (2001) Quota management in the commercial red snapper fishery. Mar Resour Econ 16(1):65–78
Weirich CR, Tomasso JR, Smith TI (1992) Confinement and transport-induced stress in white bass morone chrysops× striped bass M. saxatilis hybrids: effect of calcium and salinity. J World Aquac Soc 23(1):49–57
Wendelaar Bonga SE (1997) The stress response in fish. J Physiol Rev 77(3):591–625
Witeska M (2005) Stress in fish-hematological and immunological effects of heavy metals. Electronic Journal of Ichthyology 1(1):35–41
The authors would like to express gratitude and appreciation to those who have taken time to critically review this manuscript as well as those who helped to carry out this research at the E.W. Shell Research Station, School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences, Auburn University. Mention of trademark or proprietary products does not constitute an endorsement of the product by Auburn University and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may also be suitable.
This work was supported in part by the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station and the Hatch program (ALA016-08027) of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA.
All the experimental trials in this study were conducted in compliance with the Auburn University animal care policy, Auburn University, AL, USA.
Consent to participate
Consent for publication
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Galkanda-Arachchige, H.S.C., Davis, R.P., Nazeer, S. et al. Effect of salinity on growth, survival, and serum osmolality of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus. Fish Physiol Biochem 47, 1687–1696 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-021-01009-5