Effect of oral administration of GnRHa+nanoparticles of chitosan in oogenesis acceleration of goldfish Carassius auratus


Several methods have been used to accelerate previtellogenesis and vitellogenesis stages in fish, including hormonal induction, sustained-release delivery systems, and oral delivery of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In this study, we proposed the oral administration of GnRH analog + nanoparticles of chitosan to accelerate oogenesis in goldfish as a model fish in reproductive biology and aquaculture. In this regard, adult female goldfish were fed with six experimental groups: chitosan, 50 μg GnRHa/kg b.w., 100 μg GnRHa/kg b.w., chitosan + 50 μg GnRHa/kg b.w., and chitosan + 100 μg GnRHa/kg b.w., and diet without any additive as the control for 40 days in triplicate. Every 10 days, ovarian samples were collected, and gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte diameter (OD), zona radiata thickness (Zr), and diameter of the follicular layer (Fl) were measured to assess ovarian developmental stage for each treatment. Additionally, blood sampling was done to measure serum 17β-estradiol concentration at the end of the experiment. All parameters remained unchanged during the experiment in the chitosan-fed group. In the group fed with 100 μg GnRH or chitosan nanoparticle + 100 μg GnRHa, these parameters in general were increased. However, the effects in 50 μg GnRHa or chitosan nanoparticle + 50 μg GnRHa treatments were uncertain; they affected serum E2 levels as a trend toward a significant increase was observed in goldfish treated with chitosan nanoparticle + 100 μg GnRHa. Finally, the results indicated the oral administration of chitosan + 100 μg GnRHa/kg b.w. significantly accelerated the oocyte development and growth of ovary.

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Data availability

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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The Dept. of Fisheries, University of Tehran, and Pharmaceutics Department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, have supported this research. The present work also was supported in part by the Iran National Science Foundation. The authors wish to extend their thanks to all people who helped them in various ways, making this research possible.

Author information




Kookaram K.: MSc student; these data are coming from his thesis.

Mojazi Amiri B.: Professor in the Dept. of Fisheries and the main supervisor for the student. He provided all the scientific suggestions and grants.

Dorkoosh F.A.: He is the second supervisor and provided scientific suggestions.

Nematollahi M.A.: He was the advisor for the work and provided scientific comments.

Mortazavian E. was the advisor for the scientific group.

Abed Elmdoust A.A. was the advisor for the scientific group.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bagher Mojazi Amiri.

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The authors followed all applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals. All procedures were carried out in accordance with the Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Tehran (357, 8 November 2000).

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Kookaram, K., Mojazi Amiri, B., Dorkoosh, F.A. et al. Effect of oral administration of GnRHa+nanoparticles of chitosan in oogenesis acceleration of goldfish Carassius auratus. Fish Physiol Biochem 47, 477–486 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-021-00926-9

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  • GnRHa
  • Nanoparticles
  • Chitosan
  • Goldfish
  • Oogenesis
  • 17β-Estradiol