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Improvement of non-specific immunity, growth, and activity of digestive enzymes in Carassius auratus as a result of apple cider vinegar administration to diet

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of apple cider vinegar (ACV) administration on non-specific immunity of serum and skin mucus, growth indices, and activity of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, and protease) in Carassius auratus. For this purpose, 180 fish (weighing 7.35 ± 0.19 g) were allocated to 4 treatment groups with 3 replications in a completely randomized design. Fish were fed for 105 days using a basal diet supplemented with 0% (control), 1% (T 1), 2% (T 2), and 4% (T 3) ACV (contained 5% acetic acid). Results showed a significant increase in lysozyme activity, ACH50, and total immunoglobulin of skin mucus in fish fed with T2 diet (p < 0.05). Total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity were significantly lower in the serum of fish fed with control diet than those fed with the mentioned treatment (p < 0.05). The highest value was observed in fish fed with T2 diet. Minimum (p < 0.05) complement activity (1.52 ± 0. 25 U ml−1) was observed in fish fed with control diet. The mean of the final weights (17.35 ± 1.39 g), daily growth (1.0 ± 0.01 g), and specific growth rate (2.19 ± 0.14) was significantly higher in T3 diet group than the controls (p < 0.05). While the highest amylase-specific activity was observed in the controls (p < 0.05), there was a significant increase in specific activity of protease, lipase, and alkaline phosphatase in T2 diet group (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, the inclusion of a limited quantity of ACV (4%) into the diet can improve immunity and growth parameters in C. auratus.

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The authors are grateful to the staff at the Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and the students Mr. Ali Baghalian, Mr. Erfan Parsa, and Mr. Mahammad Zarepor for their kind help.


This work was supported by Ferdowsi University of Mashhad [Research numbers 2/44318].

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Correspondence to Hamidreza Ahmadniaye Motlagh.

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Ahmadniaye Motlagh, H., Javadmanesh, A. & Safari, O. Improvement of non-specific immunity, growth, and activity of digestive enzymes in Carassius auratus as a result of apple cider vinegar administration to diet. Fish Physiol Biochem 46, 1387–1395 (2020).

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