Skip to main content

Effects of blue light spectra on retinal stress and damage in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

Abstract

There have been a number of studies on the negative effects of blue light exposure in various species; however, little information is available on the impacts of blue light intensity and duration on fish. We investigated the effects of blue light spectra on stress in the retinas of goldfish, using a blue (460 nm) light-emitting diode (LED) at three intensities (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m2). The experiment was conducted for 4 weeks, and sampling was performed at intervals of 1 week. We measured changes in the expression of cortisol, and the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (MCH-R), and caspase-3 in the retinas of goldfish. In addition, we measured histological changes in the retina. We used a transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to evaluate the apoptotic response to blue LED spectra. Levels of cortisol, H2O2, MCH-R, and caspase-3 increased with exposure time and light intensity. Histological analysis revealed that the thickness of melanin granules increased with exposure time and light intensity. The progressive TUNEL assay revealed many apoptotic cells after exposure to blue LED light, increasing with exposure time and light intensity. Irradiation with blue light for longer than 1 week induced increased retinal stress and may induce apoptosis in the retinas of goldfish, even at a low intensity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Allen DM, Hallows TE (1997) Solar pruning of retinal rods in albino rainbow trout. Vis Neurosci 14:589–600

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Allison WT, Hallows TE, Johnson T, Hawryshyn CW, Allen DM (2006) Photic history modifies susceptibility to retinal damage in albino trout. Vis Neurosci 23:25–34

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Baker BI (1994) Melanin-concentrating hormone updated. Functional considerations. Trends Endocrinol Metabol 5:120–126

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Bogerts B (1981) A brainstem atlas of catecholaminergic neurons in man, using melanin as a natural marker. J Comp Neurol 197:63–80

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Cheng CL, Flamarique IN, Harosi FI, Rickers-Haunderland J, Haunderland NH (2006) Photoreceptor layer of salmonid fishes: transformation and loss of single cones in juvenile fish. J Comp Neurol 495:213–235

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Choi CY, Shin HS, Choi YJ, Kim NN, Lee J, Kil G-S (2012). Effects of LED light spectra on starvation-induced oxidative stress in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphprion melanopus. Comp Biochem Physiol A 163:357–363

  7. Eberle AN (1988) The melanotropins. Chemistry, physiology and mechanisms of action. Karger, Basel

  8. Fevolden S-E, Røed KH, Fjalestad KT (2002) Selection response of cortisol and lysozyme in rainbow trout and correlation to growth. Aquaculture 205:61–75

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Fischer RM, Fontinha BM, Kirchmaier S, Steger J, Bloch S, Inoue D, Panda S, Rumpel S, Tessmar-Raible K (2013) Co-expression of VAL- and TMT-opsins uncovers ancient photosensory interneurons and motorneurons in the vertebrate brain. PLoS Biol 11:e1001585

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Gaillard ER, Atherton SJ, Eldred G, Dillon J (1995) Photophysical studies on human retinal lipofuscin. Photochem Photobiol 61:448–453

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Gilchriest BJ, Tipping DR, Levy A, Baker BI (1999) The influence of acute or chronic stress of different durations on MCH mRNA abundance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In: Roubos EW, Wendelaar Bonga SE, Vaudry H, De Loof A (eds) Recent developments in comparative endocrinology and neurobiology. Shaker, Maastricht, pp 135–139

    Google Scholar 

  12. Gilham ID, Baker BI (1985) A black background facilitates the response to stress in teleosts. J Endocrinol 105:99–105

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Godley BF, Shamsi FA, Liang FQ, Jarrett SG, Davies S, Boulton M (2005) Blue light induces mitochondrial DNA damage and free radical production in epithelial cells. J Biol Chem 280:21061–21066

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Green JA, Baker BI (1991) The influence of repeated stress on the release of melanin-concentrating hormone in the rainbow trout. J Endocrinol 128:261–266

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Grimm C, Reme CE, Rol PO, Williams TP (2000) Blue light’s effects on rhodopsin: photoreversal of bleaching in living rat eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:3984–3990

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Hacker G (2000) The morphology of apoptosis. Cell Tissue Res 301:5–17

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Jaadane I, Boulenguez P, Chahory S, Carré S, Savoldelli M, Jonet L, Behar-Cohen F, Martinsons C, Torriglia A (2015) Retinal damage induced by commercial light emitting diodes (LEDs). Free Radic Biol Med 84:373–384

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Kerr JF, Wyllie AH, Currie AR (1972) Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Br J Cancer 26:239–257

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Kim MO, Phyllis EB (1998) Oxidative stress in critical care: is antioxidant supplementation beneficial? J Am Diet Assoc 98:1001–1008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Kuse Y, Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H (2014) Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light. Sci Rep 4:5223

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Kusmic C, Gualtiere P (2000) Morphology and spectral sensitivities of retinal and extraretinal photoreceptors in freshwater teleosts. Micron 31:183–200

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Migaud H, Cowan M, Taylor J, Ferguson H (2007) The effect of spectral composition and light intensity on melatonin, stress and retinal damage in post-smolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquaculture 270:390–404

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Nouroozzadeh J, Tajaddinisarmadi J, Wolff SP (1994) Measurement of plasma hydroperoxide concentrations by the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay in conjunction with triphenylphosphine. Anal Biochem 220:403–409

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Owen MAG, Davies SJ, Sloman KA (2010) Light colour influences the behaviour and stress physiology of captive tench (Tinca tinca). Rev Fish Biol Fisher 20:375–380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Palacios AG, Varela FJ, Srivastava R, Goldsmith TH (1998) Spectral sensitivity of cones in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Vis Res 38:2135–2146

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Pandey S, Parvez S, Sayeed I, Haques R, Bin-Hafeez B, Raisuddin S (2003) Biomarkers of oxidative stress: a comparative study of river Yamuna fish Wallago attu (BI. & Schn.). Sci Total Environ 309:105–115

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Papoutsoglou SE, Mylonakis G, Miliou H, Karakatsouli NP, Chadio S (2000) Effects of background color on growth performance and physiological responses of scaled carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in closed circulated systems. Aquac Eng 22:309–318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Rance TA, Baker BI (1979) The teleost melanin-concentrating hormone-a pituitary hormone of hypothalamic origin. Gen Comp Endocrinol 37:64–73

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Roch P (1999) Defense mechanisms and disease prevention in farmed marine invertebrate. Aquaculture 172:125–145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Shin HS, Lee J, Choi CY (2011) Effects of LED light spectra on oxidative stress and the protective role of melatonin in relation to the daily rhythm of the yellowtail clownfish, Amphiprion clarkii. Comp Biochem Physiol A 160:221–228

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Sparrow JR, Cai B (2001) Blue light-induced apoptosis of A2E-containing RPE: involvement of caspase-3 and protection by Bcl-2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:1356–1362

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Sung CH, Chuang JZ (2010) The cell biology of vision. J Cell Biol 190:953–963

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Thibos LN, Ye M, Zhang X, Bradley A (1992) The chromatic eye: a new reduced-eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in humans. Appl Opt 31:3594–3600

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Vihtelic TS, Hyde DR (2000) Light-induced rod and cone cell death and regeneration in the adult albino zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina. J Neurobiol 44:289–307

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Villamizar N, García-Alcazar A, Sánchez-Vázquez FJ (2009) Effect of light spectrum and photoperiod on the growth, development and survival of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Aquaculture 292:80–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Volpato GL, Barreto RE (2001) Environmental blue light prevents stress in the fish Nile tilapia. Braz J Med Biol Res 34:1041–1045.

  37. Wagner H (1990) Retinal structure of fishes. In: Douglas, R.H., Djamgoz, X. (Eds.), The visual system of fish. Chapman and Hall: 107–109

  38. Wendelaar BSE (1997) The stress response in fish. Physiol Rev 77:591–625

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Wu DM, Schneiderman T, Burgett J, Gokhale P, Barthel L, Raymond PA (2001) Cones regenerate from retinal stem cells sequestered in the innernuclear layer of adult goldfish retina. Invest Opthalmol Visual Sci 42:2115–2124

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Wu J, Gorman A, Zhou X, Sandra C, Chen E (2002) Involvement of caspase-3 in photoreceptor cell apoptosis induced by in vivo blue light exposure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:3349–3354

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Youssef PN, Sheibani N, Albert DM (2011) Retinal light toxicity. Eye 25:1–14

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Zhang T, Zhang N, Baehr W, Fu Y (2011) Cone opsin determines the time course of cone photoreceptor degeneration in Leber congenital amaurosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:8879–8884

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This research was supported by the project titled “Development and commercialization of high density low temperature plasma based seawater sterilization pulification system” funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Republic of Korea.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Cheol Young Choi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Song, J.A., Choi, C.Y. Effects of blue light spectra on retinal stress and damage in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish Physiol Biochem 45, 391–400 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-018-0571-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Blue light
  • Carassius auratus
  • Cortisol
  • Retinal damage
  • Stress