Effects of recombinant vertebrate ancient long opsin on reproduction in goldfish, Carassius auratus: profiling green-wavelength light



This study was conducted to identify the possible effect of recombinant vertebrate ancient long (VAL) opsin as a non-visual “photoreceptor” in the deep brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus. In addition, we investigated the effects of green-wavelength light on the predictable reproductive function of VAL-opsin as a green-sensitive pigment in the deep brain. To determine this, we quantified changes in gonadotropin hormone (GTH) [GTHα, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and estrogen receptor (ER; ERα and ERβ) mRNA expression levels associated with goldfish reproduction as well as changes in plasma FSH, LH, and 17β-estradiol (E2) activities after injection of recombinant VAL-opsin protein in two concentrations (0.1 or 0.5 μg/g body mass) for 4 weeks (injection once weekly) and examined the possible impact of green-wavelength light (500, 520, and 540 nm) on the function of VAL-opsin. As a result, all parameters associated with reproduction significantly increased with time and light-emitting diode (LED) exposure. Based on these results, we suggested that VAL-opsin in the deep brain is involved in goldfish maturation, and it is possible that green-wavelength light improves the ability of VAL-opsin to promote maturation by increasing VAL-opsin expression.


Goldfish Green light Maturation Reproduction VAL-opsin 





Follicle-stimulating hormone


Gonadotropin hormone




Luteinizing hormone


Light-emitting diode


Vertebrate ancient long opsin



This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korean government (2014R1A2A2A01002747), and “Development and commercialization of high density low temperature plasma based seawater sterilization pulification system” funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Marine BioScienceKorea Maritime and Ocean UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea

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