Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 693–702 | Cite as

PPARβ in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: molecular characterization, tissue expression and transcriptional regulation by dietary Cu and Zn

  • Wen-Jing You
  • Xiao-Ying Tan
  • Guang-Hui Chen
  • Chuan-Chuan Wei
  • Dan-Dan Li


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays critical roles in the regulation of many important physiological processes. In this study, PPARβ was cloned and characterized in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. PPARβ cDNA was 2350 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1530 bp, encoding 509 amino acids, a 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of 474 bp, and a 3′-UTR of 346 bp. Similar to mammals, PPARβ protein was predicted to consist of four domains, the A/B domain, DNA-binding domain (DBD), D domain, and ligand-binding domain (LBD). The DBD contained two zinc fingers with eight conserved cysteine residues. The predicted secondary structure of LBD consisted of 12 highly conserved α-helices and a small β-sheet of 4 strands. In addition, PPARβ was widely expressed across the tested tissues (liver, heart, muscle, intestine, brain, spleen, kidney, fat, ovary, and gill), but at the variable levels. Furthermore, the transcriptional responses of PPARβ by dietary Cu and Zn levels were also investigated. Dietary Cu levels showed no significant effects on PPARβ mRNA levels in the liver and intestine; in contrast, dietary Zn levels upregulated the hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels, but not in the intestine. The present study serves to increase our understanding into the function of the PPARβ gene in fish.


Pelteobagrus fulvidraco PPARβ Molecular characterization Tissue expression Transcriptional regulation Cu Zn 





the DNA-binding domain


Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase


Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase


the ligand-binding domain


Tricaine methanesulfonate


Open reading frame


Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor beta


Peroxisome proliferator response elements


Ribosomal protein L7


Retinoic X receptor


Untranslated region





This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, grant no.: 31572605) and by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars of Ministry of Education of China.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10695_2018_465_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 14 kb)


  1. Adams M, Reginato MJ, Shao D, Lazar MA, Chatterjee VK (1997) Transcriptional activation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ is inhibited by phosphorylation at a consensus mitogen-activated protein kinase site. J Biol Chem 272(8):5128–5132. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Batistapinto C, Rodrigues P, Rocha E, Lobodacunha A (2005) Identification and organ expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario). Biochim Biophys Acta 1731(2):88–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boukouvala E, Antonopoulou E, Favre-Krey L, Diez A, Bautista JM, Leaver MJ, Tocher DR, Krey G (2004) Molecular characterization of three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors from the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Lipids 39(11):1085–1092. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen GH, Luo Z, Chen F, Shi X, Song YF, You WJ, Liu X (2017) PPARα, PPARγ and SREBP-1 pathways mediated waterborne iron (Fe)-induced reduction in hepatic lipid deposition of javelin goby Synechogobius hasta. Comp Biochem Physiol 197C:8–18Google Scholar
  5. Chen QL, Luo Z, Liu CX, Zheng JL (2015a) Differential effects of dietary Cu deficiency and excess on carnitine status, kinetics and expression of CPT I in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Comp Biochem Physiol 188B:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen QL, Luo Z, Wu K, Huang C, Zhuo MQ, Song YF, Hu W (2015b) Differential effects of dietary copper deficiency and excess on lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Comp Biochem Physiol B 184:19–28. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng J, Luo Z, Chen GH, Wei CC, Zhuo MQ (2017) Identification of eight copper (Cu) uptake related genes from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and their tissue expression and transcriptional responses to dietborne Cu exposure. J Trace Elem Med Biol 44:256–265. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Den Broeder MJ, Kopylova VA, Kamminga LM, Legler J (2015) Zebrafish as a model to study the role of peroxisome proliferating-activated receptors in adipogenesis and obesity. PPAR Res 2015:358029–358011. Google Scholar
  9. Escher P, Wahli W (2000) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: insight into multiple cellular functions. Mutat Res 448:121–138Google Scholar
  10. Evans DH, Piermarini PM, Choe KP (2005) The multifunctional fish gill: dominant site of gas exchange, osmoregulation, acid-base regulation, and excretion of nitrogenous waste. Physiol Rev 85(1):97–177. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gelman L, Zhou G, Fajas L, Raspé E, Fruchart JC, Auwerx J (1999) p300 interacts with the N-and C-terminal part of PPARγ2 in a ligand-independent and-dependent manner, respectively. J Biol Chem 274(12):7681–7688. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Grimaldi PA (2001) The roles of PPARs in adipocyte differentiation. Prog Lipid Res 40(4):269–281. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Grimaldi PA (2007) Regulatory functions of PPARβ in metabolism: implications for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. BBA 1771(8):983–990. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Higashiyama H, Billin AN, Okamoto Y, Kinoshita M, Asano S (2007) Expression profiling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (ppar-delta) in mouse tissues using tissue microarray. Histochem Cell Biol 127(5):485–494. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Holst D, Luquet S, Nogueira V, Kristiansen K, Leverve X, Grimaldi PA (2003) Nutritional regulation and role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in fatty acid catabolism in skeletal muscle. BBA 1633(1):43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ikonen T, Palvimo JJ, Jänne OA (1997) Interaction between the amino-and carboxyl-terminal regions of the rat androgen receptor modulates transcriptional activity and is influenced by nuclear receptor coactivators. J Biol Chem 272(47):29821–29828. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jiang X, Yang X, Han Y, Lu S (2013) Transcription factor AP1 binds the functional region of the promoter and regulates gene expression of human PPARdelta in LoVo cell. Tumor Biol 34(6):3619–3625. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Peters JM, Lee SST, Wen L, Ward JM, Gavrilova O, Everett C, Reitman ML, Hudson LD, Gonzalez FJ (2000) Growth, adipose, brain, and skin alterations resulting from targeted disruption of the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta(delta). Mol Cell Biol 20(14):5119–5128. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones DT, Taylor WR, Thornton JM (1992) The rapid generation of mutation data matrices from protein sequences. Comput Appl Biosci 8(3):275–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Jr OW, Shenk JL, Snaith MR (2001) A selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonist promotes reverse cholesterol transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci 98:5306–5311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kondo H, Misaki R, Gelman L, Watabe S (2007) Ligand-dependent transcriptional activities of four torafugu pufferfish Takifugu rubripes peroxisome proliferator activated receptors. Gen Comp Endocrinol 154(1-3):120–127. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Leaver MJ, Boukouvala E, Antonopoulou E, Diez A, Favre-krey L, Ezaz MT (2005) Three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isotypes from each of two species of marine fish. Endocrin 146(7):3150–3162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leaver MJ, Ezaz MT, Fontagne S, Tocher DR, Boukouvala E, Krey G (2007) Multiple peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β subtypes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J Mol Endocrin 38(3):391–400. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2-ΔΔCT method. Methods 25(4):402–408. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Luo Z, Tan XY, Zheng JL, Chen QL, Liu CX (2011) Quantitative dietary zinc requirement of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and effects on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant responses. Aquaculture 319(1-2):150–155. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Michalik L, Desvergne B, Dreyer C, Gavillet M, Laurini RN, Wahli W (2002) PPAR expression and function during vertebrate development. Int J Dev Biol 46(1):105–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Raingeard D, Cancio I, Cajaraville MP (2006) Cloning and expression pattern of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the thicklip grey mullet Chelon labrosus. Mar Environ Res 62:S113–S117. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Shan W, Nicol CJ, Ito S, Bility MT, Kennett MJ, Ward JM (2008) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta protects against chemically induced liver toxicity in mice. Hepatology 47(1):225–235. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28(10):2731–2739. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Tan XY, Luo Z, Liu X, Xie CX (2011) Dietary copper requirement of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Aquac Nutr 17(2):170–176. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tsai ML, Chen HY, Tseng MC, Chang RC (2008) Cloning of peroxisome proliferators activated receptors in the cobia (Rachycentron canadum) and their expression at different life-cycle stages under cage aquaculture. Gene 425(1-2):69–78. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Vandesompele J, De Preter K, Pattyn F, Poppe B, Van Roy N, De Paepe A, Speleman F (2002) Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biol 3:research0034-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang YX, Lee CH, Tiep S, Ruth TY, Ham J, Kang H, Evans RM (2003) Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor δ activates fat metabolism to prevent obesity. Cell 113(2):159–170. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Watanabe T, Kiron V, Satoh S (1997) Trace minerals in fish nutrition. Aquacuhure 151(1-4):185–207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wei CC, Luo Z, Song YF, Pan YX, Wu K, You WJ (2017a) Identification of autophagy related genes LC3 and ATG4 from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and their transcriptional responses to waterborne and dietborne zinc exposure. Chemosphere 175:228–238. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wei CC, Wu K, Gao Y, Zhang LH, Li DD, Luo Z (2017b) Magnesium reduces hepatic lipid accumulation in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and modulates lipogenesis and lipolysis via PPARα, JAK-STAT, and AMPK pathways in hepatocytes. J Nutr 147(6):1070–1078. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. You C, Jiang D, Zhang Q, Xie D, Wang S, Dong Y, Li Y (2017) Cloning and expression characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) with their agonists, dietary lipids, and ambient salinity in rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B 206:54–64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zheng JL, Luo Z, Hu W, Liu CX, Chen QL (2014) Differential effects of dietary Zn deficiency and excess on carnitine status, kinetics and expression of CPT I in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Aquaculture 420-421:10–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zheng JL, Luo Z, Hu W, Liu CX, Chen QL, Zhu QL, Gong Y (2015) Different effects of dietary Zn deficiency and excess on lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Aquaculture 435:10–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery CollegeHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations