Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 639–649 | Cite as

Stimulatory effect of dietary taurine on growth performance, digestive enzymes activity, antioxidant capacity, and tolerance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fry to salinity stress

  • Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab
  • Mohamed N. Monier


The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary taurine (Tau) on performance, digestive enzymes, antioxidant activity, and resistance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fry to salinity stress. Fish (0.97 ± 0.033 g) were fed on different taurine levels of 0.0 (control), 5, 10, 15, or 20 g/kg diet up to satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were stressed by exposure to 10 ppt salinity for 3 days during which fish mortality was observed. Fish performance was significantly (P < 0.05) improved by dietary taurine up to 15 g Tau/kg diet after which fish growth and feed intake were almost the same. Also, taurine supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) elevated activities of intestinal amylase, lipase, and protease resulting in an improving in feed intake giving better performance. Furthermore, Tau-stimulated antioxidant activity of common carp was observed in a dose-related manner, where activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher, but malondialdehyde (MDA) value was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in Tau-fed fish groups than those fed the control diet. In salinity stress experiment, highest survival rate was observed at fish fed Tau-supplemented diets without significant (P > 0.05) differences over fish fed the control diet. It appears that taurine could be used as a feed supplement to confer better growth and health of common carp fry with optimal level of 15 g/kg diet.


Common carp Taurine Growth performance Digestive enzymes Antioxidant activity 



This study was funded and supported by Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research (CLAR), Abbassa, Abo-Hammad, Sharqia, Egypt.


  1. Abdel-Tawwab M, Khattab YAE, Ahmad MH, Shalaby AME (2006) Compensatory growth, feed utilization, whole-body composition, and hematological changes in starved juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) J Appl Aquac 18(3):17–36. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aebi H (1984) Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol 105:121–126. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Feky SSA, El-Sayed A-F, Ezzat AA (2016) Dietary taurine enhances growth and feed utilization in larval Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) fed soybean meal-based diets. Aquac Nutr 22(2):457–464. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aragona M, Lauriano ER, Pergolizzi S, Faggio C (2017) Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition. Nat Prod Res 1–13Google Scholar
  5. Bañuelos-Vargas I, López LM, Pérez-Jiménez A, Peres H (2014) Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba Macdonaldi). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 170:18–25. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Basha SMM, Roberts RM (1977) A simple colorimetric method for the determination of tryptophan. Anal Biochem 77(2):378–386. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Battin EE, Brumaghim JL (2009) Antioxidant activity of sulfur and selenium: a review of reactive oxygen species scavenging, glutathione peroxidase, and metal-binding antioxidant mechanisms. Cell Biochem Biophys 55(1):1–23. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernfeld P (1955) Enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. Methods Enzymol 1:149–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyd CE, Tucker CS (2012) Pond aquaculture water quality management. Springer Science & Business Media, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  10. Brotons Martinez J, Chatzifotis S, Divanach P, Takeuchi T (2004) Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth performance and feed selection of sea bass Dicentrarchus Labrax fry fed with demand-feeders. Fish Sci 70(1):74–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buege JA, Aust SD (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 52:302–310. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burgos-Aceves MA, Cohen A, Smith Y, Faggio C (2016) Estrogen regulation of gene expression in the teleost fish immune system. Fish Shellfish Immunol 58:42–49. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chatzifotis S, Polemitou I, Divanach P, Antonopoulou E (2008) Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth performance and bile salt activated lipase activity of common dentex, Dentex Dentex, fed a fish meal/soy protein concentrate-based diet. Aquaculture 275(1–4):201–208.
  14. Dawood MAO, Koshio S (2016) Recent advances in the role of probiotics and prebiotics in carp aquaculture : a review. Aquaculture 454:243–251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dimitroglou A, Davies SJ, Sweetman J et al (2010) Dietary supplementation of mannan oligosaccharide on white sea bream (Diplodus sargus L.) larvae: effects on development, gut morphology and salinity tolerance. Aquac Res 41:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dragnes BT, Stormo SK, Larsen R, Ernstsen HH, Elvevoll EO (2009) Utilisation of fish industry residuals: screening the taurine concentration and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition potential in cod and salmon. J Food Compos Anal 22(7–8):714–717.
  17. Dytham C (2011) Choosing and using statistics: a biologist’s guide. John Wiley & Sons, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  18. El-Sayed A-FM (2014) Is dietary taurine supplementation beneficial for farmed fish and shrimp? A comprehensive review. Rev Aquac 6(4):241–255. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. FAO (2014) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Global Aquaculture Production 1950–2012. FAO, Rome, Italy. (
  20. Fauconneau B (1985) Protein synthesis and protein deposition in fish. Nutr Feed fish 17–45Google Scholar
  21. Fazio F, Marafioti S, Arfuso F, Piccione G, Faggio C (2013) Influence of different salinity on haematological and biochemical parameters of the widely cultured mullet, Mugil Cephalus. Mar Freshw Behav Physiol 46(4):211–218. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gaylord TG, Barrows FT, Teague AM et al (2007) Supplementation of taurine and methionine to all-plant protein diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss). Aquaculture 269(1-4):514–524. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gaylord TG, Teague AM, Barrows FT (2006) Taurine supplementation of all-plant protein diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss). J World Aquacult Soc 37(4):509–517. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goering HK, Van Soest PJ (1970) Forage fiber analysis. Agricultural handbook no. 379. US Dep Agric, Washington, DC, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  25. Hagar HH (2004) The protective effect of taurine against cyclosporine A-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. Toxicol Lett 151(2):335–343. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hardy RW (2010) Utilization of plant proteins in fish diets: effects of global demand and supplies of fishmeal. Aquac Res 41(5):770–776. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Helrich K (1990) Official methods of analysis 15th ed. Association of official analytical chemist Inc., ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  28. Hoseinifar SH, Ahmadi A, Khalili M, Raeisi M, van Doan H, Caipang CM (2017a) The study of antioxidant enzymes and immune-related genes expression in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) fingerlings fed different prebiotics. Aquac Res 48(11):5447–5454. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoseinifar SH, Dadar M, Ringø E (2017b) Modulation of nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities in aquatic animals: the functional feed additives scenario. Aquac Res 48(8):3987–4000.
  30. Hoseinifar SH, Khalili M, Rostami HK, Esteban MÁ (2013) Dietary galactooligosaccharide affects intestinal microbiota, stress resistance, and performance of Caspian roach (Rutilus Rutilus) fry. Fish Shellfish Immunol 35(5):1416–1420. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hu YH, Lin CL, Huang YW, Liu PE, Hwang DF (2008) Dietary amino acid taurine ameliorates liver injury in chronic hepatitis patients. Amino Acids 35(2):469–473. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Huxtable RJ (1992) Physiological actions of taurine. Physiol Rev 72(1):101–163. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Imanpoor MR, Roohi Z (2016) Effects of Sangrovit-supplemented diet on growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, survival and stress resistance to salinity in the Caspian roach (Rutilus Rutilus) fry. Aquac Res 47(9):2874–2880. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jirsa D, Davis DA, Salze GP et al (2014) Taurine requirement for juvenile white seabass (Atractoscion Nobilis) fed soy-based diets. Aquaculture 422:36–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kataoka H, Ohnishi N (1986) Occurrence of taurine in plants. Agric Biol Chem 50:1887–1888Google Scholar
  36. Kim S-K, Matsunari H, Takeuchi T, Yokoyama M, Furuita H, Murata Y, Goto T (2008) Comparison of taurine biosynthesis ability between juveniles of Japanese flounder and common carp. Amino Acids 35(1):161–168. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim S-K, Takeuchi T, Yokoyama M, Murata Y, Kaneniwa M, Sakakura Y (2005) Effect of dietary taurine levels on growth and feeding behavior of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys Olivaceus. Aquaculture 250(3-4):765–774. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kissil GW, Lupatsch I, Higgs DA, Hardy RW (2000) Dietary substitution of soy and rapeseed protein concentrates for fish meal, and their effects on growth and nutrient utilization in gilthead seabream Sparus Aurata L. Aquac Res 31(7):595–601. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lauriano ER, Pergolizzi S, Capillo G, Kuciel M, Alesci A, Faggio C (2016) Immunohistochemical characterization of toll-like receptor 2 in gut epithelial cells and macrophages of goldfish Carassius Auratus fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Fish Shellfish Immunol 59:250–255. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Li M, Lai H, Li Q, Gong S, Wang R (2016) Effects of dietary taurine on growth, immunity and hyperammonemia in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus Fulvidraco fed all-plant protein diets. Aquaculture 450:349–355. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li P, Mai K, Trushenski J, Wu G (2009) New developments in fish amino acid nutrition: towards functional and environmentally oriented aquafeeds. Amino Acids 37(1):43–53. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Liew HJ, Fazio A, Faggio C, Blust R, de Boeck G (2015) Cortisol affects metabolic and ionoregulatory responses to a different extent depending on feeding ration in common carp, Cyprinus Carpio. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 189:45–57. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lim S-J, Oh D-H, Khosravi S et al (2013) Taurine is an essential nutrient for juvenile parrot fish Oplegnathus Fasciatus. Aquaculture 414:274–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu H, Li HW, Xu YJ et al (2006) Effects of taurine on growth and nutritional value of carps. Food Sci Technol 8:97Google Scholar
  45. Lunger AN, McLean E, Gaylord TG, Kuhn D, Craig SR (2007) Taurine supplementation to alternative dietary proteins used in fish meal replacement enhances growth of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron Canadum). Aquaculture 271(1-4):401–410. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Luo L, Wen H, Wang L et al (2006) Effects of taurine on growth performance, quality, digestive and metabolic enzyme activity of grass carp (Ctenopharymgodon idellus). Chinese J Anim Nutr 18:166–171Google Scholar
  47. McCarthy K, Hischenhuber C, Joyce N (2000) Determination of total taurine in pet foods by liquid chromatography of the dansyl derivative: collaborative study. J AOAC Int 83(4):784–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. McCord JM, Fridovich I (1969) Superoxide dismutase an enzymic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein). J Biol Chem 244(22):6049–6055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Metian AGJTM (2009) Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish. AMBIO A J Hum Environ 38(6):294–302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nguyen HP, Khaoian P, Fukada H, Suzuki N, Masumoto T (2015) Feeding fermented soybean meal diet supplemented with taurine to yellowtail Seriola Quinqueradiata affects growth performance and lipid digestion. Aquac Res 46(5):1101–1110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. NRC (1993) Nutrient requirements of fish. Committee on Animal Nutrition. Board on Agriculture. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  52. Nose T (1979) Summary report on the requirements of essential amino acids for carp. In: Tiews K, Halfer JE (eds) Finfish nutrition and feed technology. Heenman, Berline, pp 145–156Google Scholar
  53. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K (1979) Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95(2):351–358. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Oliva-Teles A, Enes P, Peres H (2015) Replacing fishmeal and fish oil in industrial aquafeeds for carnivorous fish. In: Davis AD (ed) Feed Feed Pract Aquac. Elsevier Cambridge, UK, pp 203–233Google Scholar
  55. Paglia DE, Valentine WN (1967) Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 70(1):158–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Park G-S, Takeuchi T, Yokoyama M, Seikai T (2002) Optimal dietary taurine level for growth of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys Olivaceus. Fish Sci 68(4):824–829. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Parvez S, Tabassum H, Banerjee BD, Raisuddin S (2008) Taurine prevents Tamoxifen-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage in mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102(4):382–387. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Qi G, Ai Q, Mai K et al (2012) Effects of dietary taurine supplementation to a casein-based diet on growth performance and taurine distribution in two sizes of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus Maximus L.) Aquaculture 358:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Richard N, Colen R, Aragão C (2017) Supplementing taurine to plant-based diets improves lipid digestive capacity and amino acid retention of Senegalese sole (Solea Senegalensis) juveniles. Aquaculture 468:94–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Roohi Z, Imanpoor MR, Jafari V, Taghizadeh V (2017) The use of fenugreek seed meal in fish diets: growth performance, haematological and biochemical parameters, survival and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) Aquac Res 48(3):1209–1215. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rosemberg DB, da Rocha RF, Rico EP, Zanotto-Filho A, Dias RD, Bogo MR, Bonan CD, Moreira JCF, Klamt F, Souza DO (2010) Taurine prevents enhancement of acetylcholinesterase activity induced by acute ethanol exposure and decreases the level of markers of oxidative stress in zebrafish brain. Neuroscience 171(3):683–692. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ross NW, Firth KJ, Wang A, Burka JF, Johnson SC (2000) Changes in hydrolytic enzyme activities of naive Atlantic salmon Salmo Salar skin mucus due to infection with the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus Salmonis and cortisol implantation. Dis Aquat Org 41(1):43–51. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Rossi W, Davis DA (2012) Replacement of fishmeal with poultry by-product meal in the diet of Florida pompano Trachinotus Carolinus L. Aquaculture 338:160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Roysommuti S, Azuma J, Takahashi K, Schaffer S (2003) Taurine cytoprotection: from cell to system. J Physiol Sci 16:17–27Google Scholar
  65. Salze G, McLean E, Craig SR (2012) Dietary taurine enhances growth and digestive enzyme activities in larval cobia. Aquaculture 362:44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Salze G, McLean E, Schwarz MH, Craig SR (2008) Dietary mannan oligosaccharide enhances salinity tolerance and gut development of larval cobia. Aquaculture 274(1):148–152. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Salze GP, Davis DA (2015) Taurine: a critical nutrient for future fish feeds. Aquaculture 437:215–229. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Shihabi ZK, Bishop C (1971) Simplified turbidimetric assay for lipase activity. Clin Chem 17(12):1150–1153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Smith ME, Kane AS, Popper AN (2004) Noise-induced stress response and hearing loss in goldfish (Carassius Auratus). J Exp Biol 207(3):427–435. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Soleimani N, Hoseinifar SH, Merrifield DL, Barati M, Abadi ZH (2012) Dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) improves the innate immune response, stress resistance, digestive enzyme activities and growth performance of Caspian roach (Rutilus Rutilus) fry. Fish Shellfish Immunol 32(2):316–321. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Spitze AR, Wong DL, Rogers QR, Fascetti AJ (2003) Taurine concentrations in animal feed ingredients; cooking influences taurine content. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 87(7-8):251–262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tacon AGJ, Metian MR, Tacon MAGJ, et al (2011) Demand and supply of feed ingredients for farmed fish and crustaceans: trends and prospectsGoogle Scholar
  73. Takagi S, Murata H, Goto T, Endo M, Yamashita H, Ukawa M (2008) Taurine is an essential nutrient for yellowtail Seriola Quinqueradiata fed non-fish meal diets based on soy protein concentrate. Aquaculture 280(1-4):198–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Takeuchi T, Park G-S, Seikai T, Yokoyama M (2001) Taurine content in Japanese flounder Paralichthys Olivaceus T. & S. and red sea bream Pagrus Major T. & S. During the period of seed production. Aquac Res 32:244–248. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wang Q, He G, Wang X et al (2014) Dietary sulfur amino acid modulations of taurine biosynthesis in juvenile turbot (Psetta Maxima). Aquaculture 422:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wang X, He G, Mai K, Xu W, Zhou H (2016) Differential regulation of taurine biosynthesis in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder. Sci Rep 6(1):21231. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Yamamoto T, Akimoto A, Kishi S, Unuma T, Akiyama T (1998) Apparent and true availabilities of amino acids from several protein sources for fingerling rainbow trout, common carp, and red sea bream. Fish Sci 64(3):448–458. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ye JD, Wang K, Li FD, Sun YZ (2011) Single or combined effects of fructo-and mannan oligosaccharide supplements and Bacillus Clausii on the growth, feed utilization, body composition, digestive enzyme activity, innate immune response and lipid metabolism of the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquac Nutr 17:902–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yokoyama M, Nakazoe J-I (1992) Accumulation and excretion of taurine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) fed diets supplemented with methionine, cystine and taurine. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol 102(3):565–568. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yu J, Kim AK (2009) Effect of taurine on antioxidant enzyme system in B16F10 melanoma cells. Adv Exp Med Biol 7:491–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zeng K, Xu H, Chen K, Zhu J, Zhou Y, Zhang Q, Mantian M (2010) Effects of taurine on glutamate uptake and degradation in Müller cells under diabetic conditions via antioxidant mechanism. Mol Cell Neurosci 45(2):192–199. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fish Biology and EcologyCentral Laboratory for Aquaculture ResearchSharqiaEgypt

Personalised recommendations