Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 629–637 | Cite as

Alterations in the activity of certain enzymes in the gills of a carp Labeo rohita exposed to an azo dye, Eriochrome black T: a biochemical investigation

  • Ayan Srivastava
  • Usha Kumari
  • Ashwini Kumar Nigam
  • Swati Mittal
  • Ajay Kumar Mittal


In Labeo rohita exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of an azo dye, Eriochrome black T for 4 days, gills show considerable alterations in the activity of certain metabolic enzymes—alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, carboxylesterase, lactate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase; and antioxidant enzymes—catalase and peroxidase. The activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, carboxylesterase, succinate dehydrogenase, catalase, and peroxidase decline significantly. This has been associated with impaired metabolic function of the gills due to azo dye toxicity. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase, in contrast, shows a gradual increase, reflecting a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. In the fish kept for recovery for 8 days, after exposing the fish to the dye for 4 days, activity of succinate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase gradually become similar to control. Nevertheless, activity of acid phosphatase, catalase, peroxidase, and carboxylesterase, although recover gradually, remained significantly low as compared to that of control. This study signifies that the dye is highly toxic to Labeo rohita and suggests that the activity of metabolic and antioxidant enzymes can be used as biomarker for fish toxicity.


Azo Dye Enzymes Exposure Gills Labeo rohita 


Author contributions

Ayan Srivastava designed and conducted the experiments and drafted the manuscript. Usha Kumari and Ashwini Kumar Nigam assisted in execution of experiments and data interpretation. Swati Mittal and Ajay Kumar Mittal were involved in critical analysis of data and reading and editing of the manuscript. All authors discussed the results and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Funding information

Present work was conducted under the project P-01/651 sponsored by University Grant Commission, Government of India. Mr. Ayan Srivastava was supported by Banaras Hindu University Fellowship (Scheme No. 5012) sponsored by the University Grants Commission, Government of India.

Compliance with ethical standards

All experiments were performed following the approval of the Ethics Committee of the institution as per ethical guidelines for the treatment and maintenance of animals (Ref No. F.Sc./88/IAEC/2016-2017/228). We hereby declare that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country (India) in which they were performed.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayan Srivastava
    • 1
  • Usha Kumari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ashwini Kumar Nigam
    • 1
  • Swati Mittal
    • 1
  • Ajay Kumar Mittal
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Skin Physiology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Zoology, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Zoology Section, Mahila MahavidyalayaBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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