Levels of oxidative stress can be affected by a range of compounds including toxins and pharmaceuticals. Antioxidants are important protective compounds which counteract the damaging effects of oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is one of the main antioxidants for many organisms and can be synthesized from administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC). NAC has therefore often been used in a wide range of taxa to manipulate levels of GSH. Our objective was to validate this approach in a wild temperate teleost fish model, the brown trout (Salmo trutta). We used intracoelomic injections of NAC in saline and vegetable shortening, at two different concentrations (100 and 400 mg/kg), with the appropriate controls and shams, under controlled laboratory settings. We found that NAC failed to elicit an increase in GSH over three time periods and concluded that NAC is not an effective method to enhance GSH levels in teleost fish using the concentrations and vehicles tested here. We emphasize the importance of validation studies across all new species/taxa when possible and suggest that more investigation is required with regard to NAC manipulation in fish if this approach is to be used.
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W.G.W. and S.J.C. are supported by NSERC Discovery Grants. S.J.C. is supported by the Canada Research Chairs Program. We would like to thank Andreas Svarer for his help in the field, as well as Anders Koed and Henrik Baktoft for their help in setting up the laboratory experiments.
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Birnie-Gauvin, K., Larsen, M.H., Aarestrup, K. et al. N-acetylcysteine manipulation fails to elicit an increase in glutathione in a teleost model. Fish Physiol Biochem 44, 137–142 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-017-0419-3
- Teleost fish
- Validation studies
- Vegetable shortening