Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 43, Issue 6, pp 1721–1731 | Cite as

Modulatory effect of lycopene against carbofuran toxicity in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

  • Heba S. Hamed
  • Alaa G.M. Osman


In the current study, African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to a sublethal concentration of carbofuran (CF) to investigate its negative effects on biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers. Also, the putative role of lycopene (LYC) administration in alleviating these negative effects was evaluated. Fish were divided into six groups in triplicates as follows: group I was without treatment, group II was orally administered corn oil, group III was orally administered 18 mg LYC/kg body weight, group IV was exposed to 0.121 mg CF/L, group V was orally administered 9 mg LYC/kg body weight and exposed to 0.121 mg CF/L, and group VI was orally administered 18 mg LYC/kg body weight and exposed to 0.121 mg CF/L for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, blood and tissue (liver and kidney) samples were collected and biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers were analysed. Also, histopathological changes were determined. Carbofuran caused significant increments of glucose, cortisol, aspartic amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine; meanwhile, serum acetylcholinesterase, total protein, albumin, and total lipids were significantly reduced. Significant increments in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and marked reduction in hepatic and renal catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were observed in CF-exposed fish comparing to the control group. Treatment with LYC attenuated the CF-induced oxidative stress, and this improvement was more pronounced in fish received the high LYC dose (18 mg/kg body weight). Further, congestion of the central vein with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, vacuolar necrosis, and haemorrhage was observed in the livers of CF-exposed fish. Oral administration of LYC reduced behavioural changes and histopathological alterations. All the altered biochemical parameters and antioxidant biomarkers were also restored to be near the normal levels. The obtained results evoked that LYC administration alleviated the destructive effects of carbofuran and reduced its toxicity effect on African catfish.


Carbofuran Lycopene Clarias gariepinus Biochemistry Oxidative stress biomarkers Histopathology 



Funding sources, experimental design, and fish handling of the current study had been approved by the Research Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Women for Arts, Science & Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Technical assistance for histopathology had been provided by the Central Laboratory, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science & Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.


  1. Abdelkhalek NK, Ghazy EW, Abdel-Daim MM (2015) Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:3023–3031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel–Tawwab M (2016) Effect of feed availability on susceptibility of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) to environmental zinc toxicity: Growth performance, biochemical response, and zinc bioaccumulation. Aquaculture 464:309–315.Google Scholar
  3. Abdel-Tawwab M, Wafeek M (2014) Influence of water temperature and waterborne cadmium toxicity on growth performance and metallothionein–cadmium distribution in different organs of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) J Therm Biol 45:157–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Abdel-Tawwab M, Sharafeldin KM, Mousaad MNM, Ismaiel NEM (2015) Coffee bean in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. diets: effect on growth performance, biochemical status, and resistance to waterborne zinc toxicity. Aquaculture 448:207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abdel-Tawwab M, El-Sayed GO, Monier MN, Shady SH (2017a) Dietary EDTA supplementation improved growth performance, biochemical variables, antioxidant response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) to environmental heavy metals exposure. Aquaculture 473:478–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Abdel-Tawwab M, El-Sayed GO, Shady SH (2017b) Effect of dietary active charcoal supplementation on growth performance, biochemical and antioxidant responses, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) to environmental heavy metals exposure. Aquaculture 479:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Abu Zeid EH, Khalil SA (2014) Effects of acute fenitrothion insecticide exposure on DNA damage and oxidative stress biomarkers and health of Nile tilapia fingerlings, Oreochromis niloticus L. World J Fish Mar Sci 6:361–370Google Scholar
  8. Aebi H (1984) Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol 105:121–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond W, Fu PC (1974) Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem 20:470–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Amisah S, Oteng MA, Ofori JK (2009) Growth performance of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed varying inclusion levels of Leucanena leaf meal. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 13(1):21–26Google Scholar
  11. Amlacher E (1970) Text book of fish diseases. T.E.S. Publications, New Jersey, pp 135–137Google Scholar
  12. Bainy CD, Saito E, Carvalho SM, Junqueira BC (1996) Oxidative stress in gill, erythrocytes, liver and kidney of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from a polluted site. Aquat Toxicol 34:151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bakhshwan SA, Marzouk MS, Hanna MI, Hamed HS (2009) Some investigation on the clinical and biochemical alterations associated with diazinon toxicity in Clarias gariepinus. Egypt J Aquat Biol Fish 13:173–197Google Scholar
  14. Bancroft JD, Stevens A (1996) Theory and practice of histological techniques, fourth edn. Churchill Livingstone, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Barbieri E, Ferreira LAA (2011) Effects of the organophosphate pesticide Folidol 600 on the freshwater fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Pest Biochem Physiol 99:209–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beutler E, Duron O, Kelly BM (1963) Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 61:882–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Böhm F, Tinkler JH, Truscott TG (1995) Carotenoids protect against cell membrane damage by the nitrogen dioxide radical. Nat Med 1:98–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Campos-Garcia J, Martinez DST, Alves OL, Leonardo AFG, Barbieri E (2015) Ecotoxicological effects of carbofuran and oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the freshwater fish Nile tilapia: nanotubes enhance pesticide ecotoxicity. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 111:131–137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Campos-Garcia J, Martinez DST, Rezende KFO, da Silva JRMC, Alves OL, Barbieri E (2016) Histopathological alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia exposed to carbofuran and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 133:481–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Casella S, Ielati S, Piccione D, Laganà P, Fazio F, Piccione G (2012) Oxidative stress and band 3 protein function in Liza aurata and Salmo irideus erythrocytes: effect of different aquatic conditions. Cell Biochem Funct 30:406–410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Clasen B, Leitemperger J, Murussi C, Pretto A, Menezes C, Dalabona F, Marchezan E, Adaime MB, Zanella R, Loro VL (2014) Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 101:77–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Coulombe JJ, Favreau L (1963) A new simple semimicro method for colorimetric determination of urea. Clin Chem 9:102–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Doumas BT, Watson WA, Biggs HG (1971) Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clin Chim Acta 31:87–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Duracková Z (2010) Some current insights into oxidative stress. Physiol Res 59:459–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dytham C (1999) Choosing and using statistics: a biologist’s guide. Blackwell Science Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. El Naggar GO, John G, Rezk MA, Elwan W, Yehia M (2006) Effect of varying density and water level on the spawning response of African catfish Clarias gariepinus: implications for seed production. Aquaculture 261:904–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ensibi C, Hernández-Moreno D, Soler FR, Daly Yahya MN, Míguez-Santiyán MP, Pérez-López M (2012) Effects of sub chronic exposure to carbofuran on antioxidant defense system and malondialdehyde levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Toxicol Environ Chem 94:748–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Faggio C, Fedele G, Arfuso F, Panzera M, Fazio F (2014) Haematological and biochemical response of Mugil cephalus after acclimation to captivity. Cah Biol Mar 55:31–36Google Scholar
  29. Fayed HM, Zaghloul KH, Abd El-Monem S, Mohamed HA (2001) Biological responses of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and the Nile catfish, Clarias gariepinus induced by agricultural and industrial pollutants. J Union Arab Biol 16:543–568Google Scholar
  30. Fernandes C, Fontainhas-Fernandes A, Rocha E, Salgado MA (2008) Monitoring pollution in Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon, Portugal: liver histological and biochemical effects in Liza saliens. Environ Monitor Assess 145:315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Figueiredo-Fernandes A, Ferreira-Cardoso JV, Garcia-Santos S, Monteiro SM, Carrola J, Matos P, Fontainhas-Fernandes A (2007) Histopathological changes in liver and gill epithelium of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to waterborne copper. Pesqui Vet Bras 27:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fontana L, Moreira E, Torres MI, Fernández I, Ríos A, Sánchez de Medina F, Gil A (1998) Dietary nucleotides correct plasma and liver microsomal fatty acids alterations in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by oral intake of thioacetamide. J Hepatol 28:662–669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Foster L, Dunn R (1974) Single antibody technique for radioimmunoassay of cortisol in unextracted serum or plasma. Clin Chem 20:365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Frings CS, Dunn RT (1970) Colorimetric method for determination of total plasma lipids based on the sulphophospho-vanilin reaction. Am J Clin Path 53:89–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gad NS (2005) Impact of environmental pollution in the southern region of Lake Manzalah Egypt on some biochemical parameters of Tilapia zilii. J Egypt German Soc Zool 48:279–298Google Scholar
  36. Geret F, Bebianno MJ (2004) Does zinc produce reactive oxygen species in Ruditapes decussatus? Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 57:399–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ghazala MS, Al-Ghanim KA, Sultana S, Al-Balawi HFA, Sultana T, Al-Misned F, Ahmed Z (2014) Acute toxicity II: effect of organophosphates and carbamates to Catlacatla fingerlings. JAPS 24:1795–1801Google Scholar
  38. Gingerich WH (1982) Hepatic toxicology of fishes. In: Weber LJ (ed) Aquat Toxicol. Raven Press, New York, pp 55–105Google Scholar
  39. Glusczak L, dos Miron D S, Moraes BS, Simõe RR, Schetinger MR, Morsch VM, Loro VL (2007) Acute effects of glyphosate herbicide on metabolic and enzymatic parameters of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 146:519–524CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Guardiola FA, Porcino C, Cerezuela R, Cuesta A, Faggio C, Esteban MA (2016) Impact of date palm fruits extracts and probiotic enriched diet on antioxidant status, innate immune response and immune-related gene expression of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish Shellfish Immunol 52:298–308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gupta SK, Trivedi D, Srivastava S, Joshi S, Halder N, Verma SD (2003) Lycopene attenuates oxidative stress induced experimental cataract development: an in vitro and in vivo study. Nutrition 19:794–799CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hadi A, Shokr A, Alwan S (2009) Effects of aluminum on the biochemical parameters of freshwater fish Tilapia zillii. J Sci Applica 3:33–41Google Scholar
  43. Hamed HS (2015a) Vitamin E attenuated the oxidative stress and biochemical changes induced by endosulfan in female catfish (Clarias gariepinus). World J Fish Mar Sci 7:313–324Google Scholar
  44. Hamed HS (2015b) Impact of a short-term malathion exposure of Nile tilapia, (Oreochromis niloticus): the protective role of selenium. Int J Environ Monit Anal 3:30–37Google Scholar
  45. Hamed HS (2016) Ameliorative effects of Spirulina platensis on deltamethrin-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the African catfish; Clarias gariepinus. OJMS 6:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Harabawy AS, Ibrahim A (2014) Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran pesticide on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822): hematological, biochemical and cytogenetic response. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 103:61–67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hernández-Moreno D, Pérez-López M, Soler F, Gravato C, Guilhermino L (2011) Effects of carbofuran on the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): study of biomarkers and behavior alterations. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:1905–1912CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ibrahim A Th A (2015) Protective role of lycopene and vitamin E against diazinon-induced biochemical changes in Oreochromis niloticus. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 9:557–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ibrahim AT, Harabawy AS (2014) Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus: hormonal, enzymatic and antioxidant responses. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 106:33–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jin YX, Zhang XX, Shu LJ, Chen LF, Sun LW, Qian H, Liu W, Fu Z (2010) Oxidative stress response and gene expression with atrazine exposure in adult female zebra fish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere 78:846–852CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kadry SM, Marzouk MS, Amer AM, Hanna MI, Azmy AH, Hamed HS (2012) Vitamin E as antioxidant in female African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to chronic toxicity of atrazine. Egypt J Aquat Biol Fish 16:83–98Google Scholar
  52. Karahan I, Atessahin A, Yilmaz S, Ceribas AO, Sakin F (2005) Protective effect of lycopene on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats. Toxicology 215:198–204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Knedel M, Böttger R (1967) Eine kinetische Methode zur Bestimmung der Aktivitat der Pseudocholinesterase (Acylcholine-acylhydrolase). Klin Wochenschr 45:325–327CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Koracevic D, Koracevic G, Djordjevic V, Andrejevic S, Cosic V (2001) Method for the measurement of antioxidant activity in human fluids. J Clin Pathol 54:356–361CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Larsen K (1972) Creatinine assay in the presence of protein with LKB 8600 reaction rate analyser. Clin Chim Acta 38:475–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Li W, Jiang B, Cao X, Xie Y, Huang T (2017) Protective effect of lycopene on fluoride-induce d ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis through oxidative stress-mediated caspase pathways. Chem Biol Interact 261:27–34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Litchfield JT, Wilcoxon F (1949) A simplified method of evaluating dose–effect experiments. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 96:99–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Marzouk MS, Kadry SM, Amer AM, Hanna MI, Azmy AH, Hamed HS (2012) Effect of atrazine exposure on behavioral, haematological and biochemical aspects of female African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). J Sci Res 9:290–299Google Scholar
  60. Mekkawy IMM, Mahmoud UM, Wassif ET, Naguib M (2011) Effects of cadmium on some haematological and biochemical characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) dietary supplemented with tomato paste and vitamin E. Fish Physiol Biochem 37:71–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mekkawy IAA, Mahmoud UM, Mohammed RH (2013) Protective effects of tomato paste and vitamin E on atrazine-induced hematological and biochemical characteristics of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). GARJEST 2:11–21Google Scholar
  62. Mihara M, Uchiyama M (1978) Determination of malonaldehyde precursor in tissues by thiobarbituric acid test. Anal Biochem 86:271–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Miller NJ, Sampson J, Candeias LP, Bramley PM, Rice-Evans CA (1996) Antioxidant activities of carotenes and xanthophylls. FEBS Lett 384:240–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mommsen TP, Walsh PJ (1992) Biochemical and environmental perspectives on nitrogen metabolism in fishes. Experientia 48:583–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nishikimi M, Appaji N, Yagi K (1972) The occurrence of superoxide anion in the reaction of reduced phenazine methosulfate and molecular oxygen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 46:849–854CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Okayi RG, Tachia MU, Ataguba GA, Dikwahal SH (2013) Toxicity of the herbicide propanil on Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. J Fish Aquat Sci 8:233–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Orun I, Talas ZS, Gulhan MF, Erdogan K (2014) Role of propolis on biochemical and hematological parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to cypermethrin. J Surv Fish Sci 1:21–35Google Scholar
  68. Osman AGM (2012) Biomarkers in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) to assess the impacts of river Nile pollution: bioaccumulation, biochemical and tissues biomarkers. J Environ Prot 3:966–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pagano M, Capillo G, Sanfilippo M, Palato S, Trischitta F, Manganaro A, Faggio C (2016) Evaluation of functionality and biological responses of Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to quaternium-15 (methenamine chloroallylochloride). Molecules 21:144. doi: 10.3390/molecules21020144 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Papas AM (1999) Diet and antioxidant status. Food Chem Toxicol 37:999–1007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Parvathi A, Sivakumari P, Sarasu C (2011) Effect of chromium on histological alteration of gill, liver and kidney of freshwater teleost, (Cyprinus carpio L.) J Fish Int 6:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Prasanth MS, David M, Mathed SG (2005) Behavioral changes in freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala Hamilton exposed to cypermethrin. J Ecotoxicol Environ Monit 26:141–144Google Scholar
  73. Rad F, Kurt GI, Bozaoủlu AS (2003) Effects of spatially localized and dispersed patterns of feed distribution on the growth, size dispersion and feed conversion ratio of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Turk J Vet Anim Sci 28:851–856Google Scholar
  74. Reitman S, Frankel S (1957) A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 28:56–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sahin K, Yazlak H, Orhan C, Tuzcu M, Akdemir F, Sahin N (2014) The effect of lycopene on antioxidant status in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared under high stocking density. Aquaculture 418-419:132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Salbego J, Pretto A, Gioda CR, de Meneze CC, Lazzari R, Neto JR, Baldisserotto B, Loro VL (2010) Herbicide formulation with glyphosate affects growth, acetylcholinesterase activity, and metabolic and hematological parameters in Piava (Leporinus obtusidens). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:740–745CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Samipillai S, Jagadeesan G (2005) Influence of taurine on phosphatases activity in selected tissues of mercuric chloride intoxicated mice. J Exp Zool 8:295–300Google Scholar
  78. Saravanan M, Kumar KP, Ramesh M (2011) Haematological and biochemical responses of freshwater teleost fish Cyprinus carpio (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) during acute and chronic sub lethal exposure to lindane. Pest Biochem Physiol 100:206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sayed AH, Hamed HS (2017) Induction of apoptosis and DNA damage by 4-nonylphenol in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and the antioxidant role of Cydonia oblonga. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 139:97–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sheehan D, Meade G, Foley VM, Dowd CA (2001) Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: implications for classification of nonmammalian members of an ancient enzyme superfamily. Biochem J 360:1–16CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Stephensen E, Svavarsson J, Sturve J, Ericson G, Adolfsson-Erici M, Forlin L (2000) Biochemical indicators of pollution exposure in shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), caught in four harbours on the southwest coast of Iceland. Aquat Toxicol 48:431–442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Thoker MA (2015) Comparative study of biochemical alterations induced by carbofuran and malathion on Channa punctatus (Bloch.) Int Res J Biol Sci 4:61–65Google Scholar
  83. Tomlin CDS (2009) The pesticide manual, fifteenth edn. British Crop Protection Council, SurreyGoogle Scholar
  84. Trinder P (1969) Determination of blood glucose using 4-aminophenazone. J Clin Pathol 22:246CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Ural MS (2013) Chlorpyrifos-induced changes in oxidant/antioxidant status and haematological parameters of Cyprinus carpio: ameliorative effect of lycopene. Chemosphere 90:2059–2064CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (2004) Overview of the ecological risk assessment process in the Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: endangered and threatened species effects determinations. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  87. Vinodhini R, Narayanan M (2009) Biochemical changes of antioxidant enzymes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after heavy metal exposure. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 33:273–278Google Scholar
  88. Winkalar EU, Santosh TRM, Machdo-Neto JC, Martinez CBR (2007) Acute lethal and sub lethal effects of neem leaf extracts on neotropical freshwater fish, Prochilodus lineatus. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 145:236–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yadav AS, Bhatnagar A, Kaur M (2010) Assessment of genotoxic effects of butachlor in freshwater fish, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton). Res J Environ Toxicol 4:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yonar ME (2012) The effect of lycopene on oxytetracycline-induced oxidative stress and immunosuppression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) Fish Shellfish Immunol 32:994–1001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Yonar ME, Sakin F (2011) Ameliorative effect of lycopene on antioxidant status in Cyprinus carpio during pyrethroid deltamethrin exposure. Pest Biochem Physiol 99:226–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Zoology, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science & EducationAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceAl-Azhar UniversityAssiutEgypt

Personalised recommendations