Effect of the squid viscera hydrolysate on growth performance and digestion in the red sea bream Pagrus major
- 211 Downloads
The improvement in feed efficiency is one of the most important subjects in fish culture. The development of feed, in terms of good intake, high growth performance, and high feed efficiency is needed. Squid viscera are one of the candidates for alternative material in improving feed efficiency in fish culture. In the present study, we described the dietary effect of the squid viscera hydrolysate (SVH) on the growth performance of the red sea bream. The addition of SVH to feed caused significant increases in feed intake, fork length, and body weight and produced a marked improvement in feed conversion after 4 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, the results of this feeding revealed that low dietary levels of SVH promote growth performance in the red sea bream. We physiologically analyzed digestion and appetite in fish fed diet containing SVH. SVH promoted the activity of hepatic trypsin and lipase, gene expression of stomach pepsin, hepatic lipase, and pyloric caeca trypsin, thereby improving the nutrient availability in red sea bream. Moreover, the mRNA expression of appetite regulating factor, such as brain NPY and stomach ghrelin was significantly improved by dietary SVH. Our current results indicate that dietary SVH as alternative material produced excellent effects on growth performance, which is dependent on the promoting effect on digestion and appetite in red sea bream.
KeywordsAquaculture Squid viscera hydrolysate Growth performance Gut-brain hormones Digestive enzyme
We thank Dr. Fritzie T. Celino-Brady, Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences, University of Hawaii, USA, for critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by an A-step Promoting R&D program from the Japan Science and Technology Agency, a grant-in-aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and by Shintoa Corporation.
- Cheng ZY, Mai KS, Ai QH, Li Y, He AG (2013) Effects of dietary pregelatinized corn starch on growth, apparent digestibility, and digestive enzyme activity of large yellow croaker fingerlings (Pseudosciaena crocea). Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh 65:843–850Google Scholar
- FAO (2009) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture- 2008 (SOFIA). FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Gatlin DM, Barrows FT, Brown P, Dabrowski K, Gaylord TG, Hardy RW, Herman E, Hu G, Krogdahl A, Nelson R, Overturf K, Rust M, Sealey W, Skonberg D, Souza EJ, Stone D, Wilson R, Wurtele E (2007) Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquac res 38:551–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Matsuda Y, Hayashi K, Yoshitomi U, Kanazawa A, Takeuchi T (2001) Effect of the combination of raw squid liver to extruded pellet on growth performance and digestibility of dietary nutrients for yellowtail and red sea bream. Aquacult Sci 49(4):483–488Google Scholar
- Oku H, Koizumi N, Okumura T, Kobayashi T, Umino T (2006) Molecular characterization of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and pancreatic lipase genes: effects of fasting and refeeding on their gene expression in red sea bream Pagrus major. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B 145:168–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shrestha YB, Wickwire K, Giraudo SQ (2009) Direct effects of nutrients, acetylcholine, CCK, and insulin on ghrelin release from the isolated stomachs of rats. Peptides 30:1187–1191 nutritional, environmental and reproductive changes. Comp Biochem Physiol Part A 153:8-12CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Storebakken T, Refstie S, Ruyter B (2000) Soy products as fat and protein sources in fish feeds for intensive aquaculture. In: Drackly JK (ed) Soy in animal nutrition. Federation of Animal Science Societies, Champaign, pp 127–170Google Scholar
- Ukawa M, Takii K, Nakamura M, Kumai H (1994) Utilization of soybean meal for red sea bream diet. Aquacult Sci 42:335–338Google Scholar
- Volkoff H, Xu M, MacDonald E, Hoskins L (2009) Aspects of the hormonal regulation of appetite in fish with emphasis on goldfish, Atlantic cod and winter flounder: notes on actions and responses to nutritional, environmental and reproductive changes. Comp Biochem Physiol Part A 153:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wakasugi M, Tomita K, Nagano N, Sakata Y (2002) Development of processing and utilizing technology of squid viscera. Reports of the Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute Part1 301:39–47 (in Japanese)Google Scholar