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Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 43, Issue 6, pp 1487–1500 | Cite as

Silymarin inhibits adipogenesis in the adipocytes in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus in vitro and in vivo

  • Peizhen Xiao
  • Zhou Yang
  • Jian Sun
  • Jingjing Tian
  • Zhiguang Chang
  • Xuexian Li
  • Baotong Zhang
  • Yuantu Ye
  • Hong Ji
  • Ermeng Yu
  • Jun Xie
Article

Abstract

In this study, two experiments were performed to explore the function of silymarin in adipogenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) using in vitro and in vivo models. In experiment 1, differentiated grass carp pre-adipocytes were treated with silymarin for 6 days. Treatment with 100 μg mL−1silymarin (SM100 group) significantly reduced triglyceride accumulation at day 6. The adipogenic gene expression levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP1c, FAS, SCD1, and LPL, and the protein expression level of PPARγ were significantly down-regulated in the SM100 group. Additionally, the SM100 group had significantly lower reactive oxygen species production and reduced glutathione contents compared with the control in vitro. In experiment 2, the juvenile grass carp (mean body weight= 27.4 ± 0.17 g) were fed six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets in a factorial design containing 0, 100, or 200 mg kg−1 silymarin (SM0, SM100, SM200) associated with either 4 or 8% lipid levels (low lipid, LL, and high lipid, HL, respectively) for 82 days. The results demonstrated that dietary silymarin supplementation significantly reduced the elevated intraperitoneal fat index in grass carp fed with high-lipid diets, and the gene expression of adipogenesis (PPARγ, FAS) when supplemented with dietary silymarin was notably lower than when no silymarin was supplemented under the high-lipid diets. Thus, our data suggest that silymarin suppressed lipid accumulation in grass carp both in vitro and in vivo, and the effect might be due to an influence on the expression of adipogenesis factors and ROS production partly associated with effects on antioxidant capability.

Keywords

Silymarin Adipogenesis Grass carp Adipocytes 

Abbreviations

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

C/EBPα

CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-α

DCFH-DA

2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate

DMEM

Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

FAS

Fatty acid synthase

FBW

Final average body weight

GSH

Reduced glutathione

HL

High lipid

IPF

Intraperitoneal fat

IPFI

Intraperitoneal fat index

LL

Low lipid

LPL

Lipoprotein lipase

PBS

Phosphate-buffered saline

PPARγ

Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SCD-1

Stearoyl-CoA desaturases 1

SM

Silymarin

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

SREBP-1c

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c

TG

Triglyceride

Notes

Acknowledgments

Financial support was provided by the Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System (No. CARS-46-17) and the fund of Beijing Sunpu Biochem. Tech. Co., Ltd., China. Thanks are also due to H.J. Chen, X.C. Shi, C. X. Lei, and A. Jin for their assistance in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peizhen Xiao
    • 1
  • Zhou Yang
    • 1
  • Jian Sun
    • 1
  • Jingjing Tian
    • 1
  • Zhiguang Chang
    • 1
  • Xuexian Li
    • 1
  • Baotong Zhang
    • 2
  • Yuantu Ye
    • 3
  • Hong Ji
    • 1
  • Ermeng Yu
    • 4
  • Jun Xie
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Animal Science and TechnologyNorthwest A & F UniversityYanglingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Open Lab for Aquatic Animal NutritionBeijing Research Institute for Nutritional ResourcesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Aquatic Nutrition of Jiangsu Province, School of Biology and Basic Medical SciencesSoochow UniversitySoochowPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Tropical & Subtropical Fishery Resource Application & Cultivation, Ministry of AgriculturePearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery SciencesGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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