Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 771–785

Long-term feeding a plant-based diet devoid of marine ingredients strongly affects certain key metabolic enzymes in the rainbow trout liver

  • Vincent Véron
  • Stéphane Panserat
  • Richard Le Boucher
  • Laurent Labbé
  • Edwige Quillet
  • Mathilde Dupont-Nivet
  • Françoise Médale

DOI: 10.1007/s10695-015-0174-2

Cite this article as:
Véron, V., Panserat, S., Le Boucher, R. et al. Fish Physiol Biochem (2016) 42: 771. doi:10.1007/s10695-015-0174-2


Incorporation of a plant blend in the diet can affect growth parameters and metabolism in carnivorous fish. We studied for the first time the long-term (1 year) metabolic response of rainbow trout fed from first feeding with a plant-based diet totally devoid of marine ingredients. Hepatic enzymes were analyzed at enzymatic and molecular levels, at 3, 8 and 24 h after the last meal to study both the short-term effects of the last meal and long-term effects of the diet. The results were compared with those of fish fed a control diet of fish meal and fish oil. Growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein retention were lower in the group fed the plant-based diet. Glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activity were lower in the livers of trout fed the plant-based diet which the proportion of starch was lower than in the control diet. Glutamate dehydrogenase was induced by the plant-based diet, suggesting an imbalance of amino acids and a possible link with the lower protein retention observed. Gene expression of delta 6 desaturase was higher in fish fed the plant-based diet, probably linked to a high dietary level of linolenic acid and the absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase expression was also induced by plant-based diet because of the low rate of cholesterol in the diet. Changes in regulation mechanisms already identified through short-term nutritional experiments (<12 weeks) suggest that metabolic responses are implemented at short term and remain in the long term.


Fish Nutrition Dietary adaptation Activity Expression 


M diet

Marine resources-based diet

PB diet

Plant-based diet




Pyruvate kinase


Glucose 6 phosphatase


Glutamate dehydrogenase


Aspartate aminotransferase


Alanine aminotransferase


Citrate synthase


Fatty acid synthase


3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase




Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
European Commission (BE)
  • FP7-KBBE-2001 N°288925

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vincent Véron
    • 1
  • Stéphane Panserat
    • 1
  • Richard Le Boucher
    • 2
  • Laurent Labbé
    • 3
  • Edwige Quillet
    • 2
  • Mathilde Dupont-Nivet
    • 2
  • Françoise Médale
    • 1
  1. 1.INRA UR 1067 NuMeA (Nutrition Metabolism Aquaculture)Saint Pée Sur NivelleFrance
  2. 2.INRA, UMR1313 GABI (Génétique animale et biologie intégrative)Jouy-En-JosasFrance
  3. 3.INRA, UE 0937 PEIMA (Pisciculture Expérimentale INRA des Monts d’Arrée)SizunFrance

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