Commercial formulation containing 2,4-D affects biochemical parameters and morphological indices of silver catfish exposed for 90 days
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The objective of this study was to verify whether a commercial formulation of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D dimethylamine salt (DMA)] affects the growth and biochemical parameters of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after 90 days of exposure. The fish exposed to 0.5 or 2.0 mg/L of DMA presented exhibited decreased growth parameters. Glucose was reduced in the mucus layer at both concentrations, and the total protein level was increased at the highest concentration tested. Fish exposed to DMA showed reduced liver and kidney glycogen at both concentrations tested, while in the muscle, glycogen was reduced only at 2.0 mg/L. Glucose was increased in the liver and decreased in the muscle and kidney at both concentrations and was not altered in the plasma. Lactate was increased in all the tissues and decreased in the plasma. Protein levels were reduced in the liver and plasma at both concentrations, while in the muscle, it was decreased at a concentration of 2.0 mg/L. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were reduced in the liver and increased in the muscle at both concentrations and did not change in the brain. DMA increased catalase activity in the liver at both concentrations tested. The present study demonstrates the effects of long-term exposure to DMA. Some parameters could be used as toxicity indicators to identify the presence of DMA in an aquatic environment.
KeywordsCatalase DMA Metabolic parameters Silver catfish TBARS
We would like to thank the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM) for the support and facilities and the financial support and fellowships from the Brazilian agencies CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) and CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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