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Effect of replacement of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil on growth, lipid class and fatty acid composition of farmed juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

Abstract

Camelina (Camelina sativa) oil was tested as a replacement for fish oil in diets for farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Camelina differs from other plant oilseeds previously used in aquaculture with high lipid (40 %), α-linolenic acid (40 %), antioxidants and low proportions of saturated fats. Dietary treatments were fed to cod (19 g fish−1 initial weight) for 9 weeks and included a fish oil control (FO), 40 % (CO40) and 80 % (CO80) replacement of fish oil with camelina oil. There was no effect of replacing fish oil with camelina oil included at levels up to 80 % on the growth performance. Cod fed CO80 stored more lipid in the liver (p < 0.01), including more neutral lipid (p < 0.05) and triacylglycerol (p < 0.05). Cod fed CO80 decreased in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in muscle compared to CO40 and FO (p < 0.05), increased in monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01), decreased in total ω3 fatty acids (FO > CO40 > CO80; p < 0.01) and increased in total ω6 fatty acids (FO < CO40 < CO80; p < 0.01). In the liver, long-chain (LC) PUFA such as 20:4ω6, 20:5ω3, 22:5ω3 and 22:6ω3 decreased when fish oil was removed from the diet (p < 0.05), and increased in 18-carbon fatty acids (p < 0.01). Camelina oil can reduce the amount of fish oil needed to meet lipid requirements, although replacing 80 % of fish oil reduced LC PUFAs in both tissues. A comparison of BF3 and H2SO4 as catalysts to transmethylate cod liver and muscle lipids revealed small but significant differences in some fatty acid proportions.

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Acknowledgments

This study was supported by Genome Atlantic, Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA)—Atlantic Innovation Fund (AIF), and Research and Development Corporation of Newfoundland (RDC). The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Matthew Rise for conceptual contribution to the project; the Joe Brown Aquaculture Research Building staff for rearing and maintenance of cod; Jeanette Wells, John Heath and Breanne Coady for technical support; Dr. Marije Booman, and Charles Feng for assistance with fish sampling.

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Correspondence to Stefanie M. Hixson.

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Hixson, S.M., Parrish, C.C. & Anderson, D.M. Effect of replacement of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil on growth, lipid class and fatty acid composition of farmed juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Fish Physiol Biochem 39, 1441–1456 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-013-9798-2

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Keywords

  • Camelina sativa
  • Lipid class
  • Fatty acid
  • Atlantic cod