Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 431–457 | Cite as

Beta-glucan: an ideal immunostimulant in aquaculture (a review)

  • D. K. Meena
  • Pronob Das
  • Shailesh Kumar
  • S. C. Mandal
  • A. K. Prusty
  • S. K. Singh
  • M. S. Akhtar
  • B. K. Behera
  • Kundan Kumar
  • A. K. Pal
  • S. C. Mukherjee
Article

Abstract

The major hindrance in the development and sustainability of aquaculture industry is the occurrence of various diseases in the farming systems. Today, preventive and management measures are central concern to overcome such outbreak of diseases. Immunostimulants are considered as an effective tool for enhancing immune status of cultured organisms. Among different immunostimulants used in aquaculture practices, β-glucan is one of the promising immunostimulant, which is a homopolysaccharide of glucose molecule linked by the glycoside bond. It forms the major constituents of cell wall of some plants, fungi, bacteria, mushroom, yeast, and seaweeds. Major attention on β-glucan was captivated with the gain in knowledge on its receptors and the mechanism of action. The receptor present inside the animal body recognizes and binds to β-glucan, which in turn renders the animal with high resistance and enhanced immune response. This review highlights β-glucan as an immunostimulant, its effective dosages, and route of administration and furthermore provides an outline on role of β-glucan in enhancing growth, survival, and protection against infectious pathogens pertaining to fishes and shellfishes. Study also summarizes the effect of β-glucan on its receptors, recognition of proteins, immune-related enzymes, immune-related gene expression and their mechanisms of action.

Keywords

β-Glucan β-Glucan receptor β-Glucan binding protein Prophenoloxidase Immunostimulant Aquaculture Prebiotics 

Abbreviations

BG

β-Glucan

LGBP

Lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan binding protein

proPO

Prophenoloxidase

BGR

β-Glucan receptor

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

TLR

Toll like receptor

WSSV

White spot syndrome virus

RPS

Relative percent survival

FED

Feed efficiency ratio

YYS

Yeast and yeast subcomponents

YCW

Yeast cell wall

YBG

Yeast β-glucan

BYG

Brewer’s yeast glucan

CMBG

Carboxymethyl β-glucan

THC

Total hemocyte count

BGBP-HDL

β-Glucan binding protein–high density lipopolysaccharide

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. K. Meena
    • 1
  • Pronob Das
    • 1
  • Shailesh Kumar
    • 2
  • S. C. Mandal
    • 3
  • A. K. Prusty
    • 4
  • S. K. Singh
    • 2
  • M. S. Akhtar
    • 5
  • B. K. Behera
    • 1
  • Kundan Kumar
    • 2
  • A. K. Pal
    • 2
  • S. C. Mukherjee
    • 2
  1. 1.Central Inland Fisheries Research InstituteKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Central Institute of Fisheries EducationMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.College of FisheriesCentral Agricultural UniversityLembucherraIndia
  4. 4.Project Directorate for Farming System Research (PDFSR)MeerutIndia
  5. 5.Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries ResearchNainitalIndia

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