Fire Technology

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 43–64 | Cite as

Experimental and Numerical Study of Window Glass Breakage with Varying Shaded Widths under Thermal Loading

  • Haodong Chen
  • Qingsong WangEmail author
  • Yu Wang
  • Han Zhao
  • Jinhua Sun
  • Linghui He


To investigate the effect of shaded width on the breaking behavior of window glass, a series of experiments was carried out on float glass with dimension of 600 mm × 600 mm × 6 mm in an enclosed compartment under radiant heat. The shaded width of glass pane ranged from 10 mm to 50 mm with an interval of 10 mm. Experimental results showed that crack patterns of the glass pane were influenced little by the shaded width, while the average value of the first breaking time of the glass pane decreased firstly and then increased with an increase in the shaded width. The average time to the first crack with the shaded width of 20 mm was shortest in experiments and the corresponding time was 572.5 s. In addition, the finite element method was also used to simulate the process of crack initiation and single crack propagation. Temperatures measured by thermocouples in experiments were employed as thermal loads for the problem of glass breakage. The first breaking time obtained by the program was in good agreement with experimental data.


Glass breakage Shaded width Experiment Finite element method Radiant heat 



Crack increment


Critical crack length


Body force vector


Empirical factor


Rayleigh wave speed


Stiffness tensor


Young’s modulus


Nodal force vector


Geometric factor


Cumulative Weibull function


Half-length of the window


Second-order identity tensor


Stiffness matrix


Stress intensity factors of modes I, II, and III


Fracture toughness values of modes I and II


Effective stress intensity factor of mode I


Thickness of glass


Shape parameter in Weibull distribution function


Mass matrix


Distance from crack tip, or radial coordinate


Shaded width




Time increment


Transient temperature


Initial temperature


Displacement vector


Acceleration vector


Displacement vector of the finite element equation

\( {\dot{\mathbf{U}}} \)

Velocity vector of the finite element equation


Acceleration vector of the finite element equation

u, v, w

Displacements in the x, y, and z directions


Crack speed

x, y, z




Coefficient of linear expansion, or Newmark parameter


Newmark parameter




Strain tensor


Temperature strain tensor


Angle, or angular coordinate


Angle of crack growth


Kolosov constant


Poisson’s ratio




Stress tensor


Scale parameter in Weibull distribution function


Breaking stress


Location parameter in Weibull distribution function









Heated shaded side



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51578524 and 51120165001), National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, Grant No. 2012CB719700), and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (Grant No. 2013286).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haodong Chen
    • 1
  • Qingsong Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yu Wang
    • 1
  • Han Zhao
    • 1
  • Jinhua Sun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Linghui He
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Fire ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center for Urban Public SafetyHefeiPeople’s Republic of China

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