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Fire Technology

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 249–281 | Cite as

Determination of Separation Distances Inside Large Buildings

Article

Abstract

In this study, an analytical framework is developed to determine the hazards posed by an uncontrolled fire burning indoors. This scenario, unlike unconfined outdoor fires, has received little attention in the literature and associated engineering methods for risk evaluation are unavailable. The present analyses are limited to overventilated fires burning in large non-combustible buildings. Hazards are evaluated on the basis of thermal radiation and firebrand transport. Thermal radiation is assessed using a solid flame radiation model; transport of firebrands is evaluated taking into consideration the convective ceiling layer established by the fire plume. Given the considerably different geometry of the scenario of interest herein, as compared to unconfined fires, efforts are placed in developing a rigorous physical and mathematical approach so as to make the developed methodology sufficiently general. The model derived is validated against limited heat flux data obtained for free-burn fires (up to 50 MW) involving Class 2 commodity rack storage arrays. In addition, general trends are investigated using a hypothetical sample scenario. Results show that thermal radiation is the main phenomenon driving the hazards encountered in indoor fires; firebrand transport, due to ceiling confinement, presents a much lesser hazard.

Keywords

Indoor fire Thermal radiation Firebrand transport Separation distance 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author gratefully acknowledges the many helpful discussions and support of Dr. Yi Wang, Dr. Sergey Dorofeev, and Dr. Franco Tamanini of FM Global Research as well as Mr. Michael Daly and Mr. John LeBlanc of FM Global Engineering Standards. Dr. Jaap de Vries is acknowledged for making available unpublished heat flux data associated with Reference [45]. In addition, Dr. Sayaka Suzuki and Dr. Samuel Manzello are thanked for graciously providing data used in the present study for the evaluation of firebrand transport.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research DivisionFM GlobalNorwoodUSA

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