Fire Technology

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 709–739 | Cite as

Structural Response of World Trade Center Buildings 1, 2 and 7 to Impact and Fire Damage

  • Therese P. McAllister
  • John L. Gross
  • Fahim Sadek
  • Steven Kirkpatrick
  • Robert A. MacNeill
  • Mehdi Zarghamee
  • Omer O. Erbay
  • Andrew T. Sarawit
Article

Abstract

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) conducted an extensive investigation of the collapse of World Trade Center towers (WTC 1 and WTC 2) and the WTC 7 building. This paper describes the component, subsystem, and global analyses performed for the reconstruction of the structural response of WTC buildings 1, 2, and 7 to impact and fire damage. To illustrate the component and subsystem analyses, the approach taken for simulating the performance of concrete slabs and shear stud connectors in composite floors subject to fire conditions are presented, as well as steel floor framing connections for beams and girders. The development of the global models from the component and subsystem analyses is briefly described, including the sets of input data used to bound the probable conditions of impact and fire damage. The final analysis results that were used to develop the probable collapse hypotheses, and a comparison of the results against observed events, are presented for each building. A review of research activities focused on improving understanding of structural system response to multi-floor fires following the WTC disaster is also provided.

Keywords

World Trade Center Structural fire effects Impact damage Structural analysis Failure analysis Global collapse 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (Outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Therese P. McAllister
    • 1
  • John L. Gross
    • 1
  • Fahim Sadek
    • 1
  • Steven Kirkpatrick
    • 2
  • Robert A. MacNeill
    • 2
  • Mehdi Zarghamee
    • 3
  • Omer O. Erbay
    • 3
  • Andrew T. Sarawit
    • 3
  1. 1.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  2. 2.Applied Research AssociatesMountain ViewUSA
  3. 3.Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc.WalthamUSA

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