Experimental Astronomy

, 31:177 | Cite as

Connection among spacecrafts and ground level observations of small solar transient events

An overview of small solar transient events observed at ground
  • Carlos Roberto A. Augusto
  • Anderson C. Fauth
  • Carlos E. Navia
  • Hisatake Shigeouka
  • Kin H. Tsui
Original Paper

Abstract

An overview of the results of the search for small solar transient events, in association with muon enhancements (deficits) registered at ground-level by the Tupi muon telescopes, is presented. Among the events, there are three interplanetary shocks and two solar flares of small scale whose X-ray emission flux is much smaller than 10 − 5 W m−2 at 1 AU (GOES-Tupi connection). Two of the interplanetary shocks are cataloged as corotating interaction region and the third shock is due to the passage of a CME (coronal mass ejection) ejecta (ACE and SOHO-Tupi connection) in the Earth’s proximities. In most cases, the particles excess (deficit) coming from these events have only been observed with spacecraft instruments. However, the Tupi telescopes are located at sea level and within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), a region where the shielding effect of the magnetosphere is not perfectly spherical and shows a ‘dip’. This fact enables the muon telescopes to achieve a low rigidity of response to primary and secondary charged particles (≥ 0.1 GV). Muon excesses (deficits) with significances above 4σ have been found. These events observed at ground admit a temporal correlation with solar transient events observed by spacecrafts, which suggests strongly a real connection between them. Details of these observations are reported.

Keywords

Solar physics Solar energetic particles Ground level enhancements 

References

  1. 1.
    Augusto, C.R.A., Navia, C.E., Tsui, K.H.: Muon enhancements at sea level in association with Swift-BAT and MILAGRO triggers. Phys. Rev. D77, 123008 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Casolino, M., et al., PAMELA Collaboration: Observations of primary, trapped and quasi trapped particles with PAMELA experiment. In: Proceedings 30th ICRC, Merida, vol. 1, p. 709 (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gupta, S.P.: Solar activity and atmospheric tide effect on the polar conductivity and the vertical electric field in the stratosphere at low latitude. Adv. Space Res. 34, 1798 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Augusto, C.R.A., et al.: Simultaneous observation at sea level and at 5200 m.a.s.l. of high energy particles in the South Atlantic Anomaly. Astropart. Phys. 34, 40 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Iucci, N., Parisi, M., Storini, M., Villoresi, G.: High-speed solar-wind streams and galactic cosmic-ray modulation. Il Nuovo Cimento 2C, 421 (1979)ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V., Cliver, E.W.: Sources of geomagnetic activity during nearly three solar cycles (1972–2000). J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1187 (2002). doi:10.1029/2001JA000504 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Krucker, S., Benz, A.J.: Energy distribution of heating processes in the quiet solar corona. Astrophys. J. 501, L213 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berghmans, D., Clette, F., Moses, D.: A panoramic view by EIT on board SOHO. Astron. Astrophys. 336, 1039 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aschwand, M.J., et al.: Time variability of the “quiet” Sun observed with TRACE. II. Physical parameters, temperature evolution, and energets of extreme-ultraviolet nanoflares. Astrophys. J. 535, 1027 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ruffolo, D., Khumlumlert, T.: Propagation of coherent pulses of solar cosmic rays. In: Proceeding 24th ICRC, Rome, vol. 4, p. 277 (1995)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Navia, C.E., et al.: Is there an enhancement of muons at sea level from transient events? Astrophys. J. 621, 1137 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Augusto, C.R.A., et al.:Muon excess at sea level from solar flares in association with the Fermi GBM spacecraft detector. Phys. Rev. D. (2011). arXiv:1012.1561v1 [astro-ph.SR]

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Roberto A. Augusto
    • 1
  • Anderson C. Fauth
    • 2
  • Carlos E. Navia
    • 1
  • Hisatake Shigeouka
    • 1
  • Kin H. Tsui
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de FísicaUniversidade Federal Fluminense NiteroiNiteroiBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de Fisica Gleb WataghinUniversidade Estadual de CampinasCampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations