Connection among spacecrafts and ground level observations of small solar transient events
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An overview of the results of the search for small solar transient events, in association with muon enhancements (deficits) registered at ground-level by the Tupi muon telescopes, is presented. Among the events, there are three interplanetary shocks and two solar flares of small scale whose X-ray emission flux is much smaller than 10 − 5 W m−2 at 1 AU (GOES-Tupi connection). Two of the interplanetary shocks are cataloged as corotating interaction region and the third shock is due to the passage of a CME (coronal mass ejection) ejecta (ACE and SOHO-Tupi connection) in the Earth’s proximities. In most cases, the particles excess (deficit) coming from these events have only been observed with spacecraft instruments. However, the Tupi telescopes are located at sea level and within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), a region where the shielding effect of the magnetosphere is not perfectly spherical and shows a ‘dip’. This fact enables the muon telescopes to achieve a low rigidity of response to primary and secondary charged particles (≥ 0.1 GV). Muon excesses (deficits) with significances above 4σ have been found. These events observed at ground admit a temporal correlation with solar transient events observed by spacecrafts, which suggests strongly a real connection between them. Details of these observations are reported.
KeywordsSolar physics Solar energetic particles Ground level enhancements
This work is supported by the Brazilian National Council for Research (CNPq), under Grants No. 479813/2004 − 3 and 476498/2007 − 4. We are grateful to various catalogs such as ACE Science Center and SOHO Solar and Heliosphere Observatory available on the web, and to their open data policy.
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