Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 20, Issue 1–3, pp 131–137 | Cite as

Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes

  • Fiona A. Harrison
  • Finn E. Christensen
  • William Craig
  • Charles Hailey
  • Wayne Baumgartner
  • C. M. H. Chen
  • James Chonko
  • W. Rick Cook
  • Jason Koglin
  • Kristin-Kruse Madsen
  • Michael Pivavoroff
  • Steven Boggs
  • David Smith
Original Article

Abstract

Hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray astrophysics is on the verge of a major advance with the practical realization of technologies capable of efficiently focusing X-rays above 10 keV. Hard X-ray focusing telescopes can achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity compared to the instruments based on coded apertures and collimated detectors that have traditionally been employed in this energy band. Compact focal planes enable high-performance detectors with good spectral resolution to be employed in efficient, low-background configurations. We have developed multilayer coated grazing incidence optics and solid state Cadmium Zinc Telluride focal plane systems for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon-borne experiment, and for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) Small Explorer satellite. In this paper we describe the technologies, telescope designs, and performance of both experiments.

Keywords

X-ray telescopes X-ray optics X-ray detectors 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona A. Harrison
    • 1
  • Finn E. Christensen
    • 2
  • William Craig
    • 3
  • Charles Hailey
    • 4
  • Wayne Baumgartner
    • 1
  • C. M. H. Chen
    • 1
  • James Chonko
    • 3
  • W. Rick Cook
    • 1
  • Jason Koglin
    • 4
  • Kristin-Kruse Madsen
    • 2
  • Michael Pivavoroff
    • 3
  • Steven Boggs
    • 5
  • David Smith
    • 6
  1. 1.Space Radiation LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Danish National Space CentreCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA
  4. 4.Columbia Astrophysics LaboratoryColumbia UniversityColumbiaUSA
  5. 5.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  6. 6.University of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA

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