Evolutionary Ecology

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 469–488 | Cite as

Evaluating cognition and thermal physiology as components of the pace-of-life syndrome

  • Celine T. GouletEmail author
  • Marcus Michelangeli
  • Melinda Chung
  • Julia L. Riley
  • Bob B. M. Wong
  • Michael B. Thompson
  • David G. Chapple
Original Paper


The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) suggests that behavioral traits are correlated and integrate within a fast–slow physiological continuum. At the fast extreme, individuals having higher metabolic rates are more active, exploratory, and bold with the opposite suite of traits characterizing those at the slow physiological extreme. A recent framework suggests that behavioral types may also differ consistently in their cognitive style. Accordingly, we propose that cognition could be further incorporated into the POLS framework comprised of behavioral and thermal physiological traits. Under this premise, fast behavioral types having high thermal traits are predicted to acquire a novel task faster but at the cost of accuracy while slow behavioral types with low thermal traits would be more attentive, responding to cues at a slower rate leading to higher accuracy and flexibility. This was tested by measuring physiological and behavioral traits in delicate skinks (Lampropholis delicata) and testing their learning ability. Correlations were detected between cognition and behavior but not thermal physiology. Contrary to our predictions, individual positioning along these axes opposed our predicted directions along the fast–slow continuum. Fast lizards preferring lower body temperatures expressed higher activity, exploration, sociality, and boldness levels, and learned the discrimination learning task at a slower rate but made the most errors. Additionally, modelling results indicated that neither thermal physiology, behavior, or their interaction influenced cognitive performance. Although the small number of animals completing the final stages of the learning assays limits the strength of these findings. Thus, we propose that future research involving a greater sample size and number of trials be conducted so as to enhance our understanding into how the integration of cognitive style, behavior, and physiology may influence individual fitness within natural populations.


Behavior Discrimination learning Lizard Thermal physiology 



We thank H. Moule and M. Bertram for assistance during fieldwork and H. Kang, D. Littlewood, and S. Walsh for help with lizard captive husbandry. R. San Martin, I. Stewart, and P. Arnold provided access to the animal housing facility and construction of experimental equipment. C. Johnstone assisted with the statistical analyses. The project was conducted in accordance with our Monash University Animal Ethics Committee approvals (BSCI/2012/17, BSCI/2013/19, BSCI2014/11, BSCI/2014/26), associated scientific research permits (NSW: SL101203; VIC: 10006866, 10006867), and under special permission from Lane Cove National Park. Financial support was provided by the ANZ Trustees Foundation- Holsworth Wildlife Research Endowment, and the Australian Research Council (Discovery Project Grant to DGC; DP170100684), Australian Society of Herpetologists, and the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


  1. Amiel JJ, Shine R (2012) Hotter nests produce smarter young lizards. Biol Lett 8:372–374CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Amiel JJ, Lindstrom T, Shine R (2013) Egg incubation effects generate positive correlations between size, speed and learning ability in young lizards. Anim Cogn 17:337–347CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson MA, Khan UW, Overli O, Gjoen HM, Hoglund E (2013) Coupling between stress coping style and time of emergence from spawning nests in salmonid fishes: evidence from selected rainbow trout strains (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Physiol Behav 116–117:30–34CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Angilletta MJ (2006) Estimating and comparing thermal performance curves. J Therm Biol 31:541–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Angilletta MJ Jr, Niewiarowski PH, Navas CA (2002) The evolution of thermal physiology in ectotherms. J Therm Biol 27:249–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angilletta MJ Jr, Bennett AF, Guderley H, Navas CA, Seebacher F, Wilson RS (2006) Coadaptation: a unifying principle in evolutionary thermal biology. Physiol Biochem Zool 79:282–294CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnold KE, Herborn KA, Adam A, Alexander L, Blount J (2015) Individual variation in the oxidative costs of personality traits. Funct Ecol 29:522–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Artacho P, Jouanneau I, Le Galliard JF (2013) Interindividual variation in thermal sensitivity of maximal sprint speed, thermal behavior, and resting metabolic rate in a lizard. Physiol Biochem Zool 86:458–469CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bettis TJ, Jacobs LF (2009) Sex-specific strategies in spatial orientation in C57BL/6J mice. Behav Process 82:249–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bezzina CN, Amiel JJ, Shine R (2014) Does invasion success reflect superior cognitive ability? A case study of two congeneric lizard species (Lampropholis, Scincidae). PLoS ONE 9:e86271CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Biro PA, Stamps JA (2008) Are animal personality traits linked to life-history productivity? Trends Ecol Evol 23:361–368CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Biro PA, Stamps JA (2010) Do consistent individual differences in metabolic rate promote consistent individual differences in behavior? Trends Ecol Evol 25:653–659CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Biro PA, Beckmann C, Stamps JA (2010) Small within-day increases in temperature affects boldness and alters personality in coral reef fish. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 277:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blouin-Demers G, Kissner KJ, Weatherhead PJ (2000) Plasticity in preferred body temperature of young snakes in response to temperature during development. J Inf 2000:841–845Google Scholar
  15. Boogert NJ, Reader SM, Laland KN (2006) The relation between social rank, neophobia and individual learning in starlings. Anim Behav 72:1229–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Briffa M, Bridger D, Biro PA (2013) How does temperature affect behaviour? Multilevel analysis of plasticity, personality and predictability in hermit crabs. Anim Behav 86:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brust V, Wuerz Y, Krüger O, Wright J (2013) Behavioural flexibility and personality in zebra finches. Ethology 119:559–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buckley CR, Jackson M, Youssef M, Irschick DJ, Adolph SC (2007) Testing the persistence of phenotypic plasticity after incubation in the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Evol Ecol Res 9:169–183Google Scholar
  19. Burger J, Boarman W, Kurzava L, Gochfeld M (1991) Effect of experience with pine (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king (Lampropeltis getulus) snake odors on Y-maze behavior of pine snake hatchlings. J Chem Ecol 17:79–87CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Burghardt GM (1977) Learning processes in reptiles. Biol Reptil 7:555–681Google Scholar
  21. Carazo P, Font E, Desfilis E (2008) Beyond ‘nasty neighbours’ and ‘dear enemies’? Individual recognition by scent marks in a lizard (Podarcis hispanica). Anim Behav 76:1953–1963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carazo P, Noble DW, Chandrasoma D, Whiting MJ (2014) Sex and boldness explain individual differences in spatial learning in a lizard. Proc Biol Sci R Soc 281:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Careau V, Garland T Jr (2012) Performance, personality, and energetics correlation, causation and mechanism. Physiol Biochem Zool 85:43–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Careau V, Thomas D, Humphries MM, Reale AD (2008) Energy metabolism and animal personality. Oikos 117:641–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Careau V, Bininda-Emonds ORP, Thomas DW, Réale D, Humphries MM (2009) Exploration strategies map along fast–slow metabolic and life-history continua in muroid rodents. Funct Ecol 23:150–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Careau V, Réale D, Humphries MM, Thomas DW (2010) The pace of life under artificial selection: personality, energy expenditure, and longevity are correlated in domestic dogs. Am Nat 175:753–758CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Careau V, Reale D, Garant D, Speakman JR, Humphries MM (2012) Stress-induced rise in body temperature is repeatable in free-ranging Eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). J Comp Physiol B 182:403–414CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Carere C, Locurto C (2011) Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition. Curr Zool 57:491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chapple DG, Hoskin CJ, Chapple SN, Thompson MB (2011a) Phylogeographic divergence in the widespread delicate skink (Lampropholis delicata) corresponds to dry habitat barriers in eastern Australia. BMC Evol Biol 11:191–209CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Chapple DG, Simmonds SM, Wong BB (2011b) Know when to run, know when to hide: can behavioral differences explain the divergent invasion success of two sympatric lizards? Ecol Evol 1:278–289CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Chapple DG, Miller KA, Kraus F, Thompson MB (2013a) Divergent introduction histories among invasive populations of the delicate skink (Lampropholis delicata): has the importance of genetic admixture in the success of biological invasions been overemphasized? Divers Distrib 19:134–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chapple DG, Whitaker AH, Chapple SN, Miller KA, Thompson MB (2013b) Biosecurity interceptions of an invasive lizard: origin of stowaways and human-assisted spread within New Zealand. Evol Appl 6:324–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chapple DG, Miller KA, Chaplin K, Barnett L, Thompson MB, Bray RD (2014) Biology of the invasive delicate skink (Lampropholis delicata) on Lord Howe Island. Aust J Zool 62:498–506Google Scholar
  34. Chittka L, Skorupski P, Raine NE (2009) Speed-accuracy tradeoffs in animal decision making. Trends Ecol Evol 24:400–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chung M, Goulet CT, Michelangeli M, Melki-Wegner B, Wong BBM, Chapple DG (2017) Does personality influence learning? A case study in an invasive lizard. Oecologia 185:641–651CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cisterne A, Vanderduys EP, Pike DA, Schwarzkopf L (2014) Wary invaders and clever natives: sympatric house geckos show disparate responses to predator scent. Behav Ecol 25(3):604–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Clark BF, Amiel JJ, Shine R, Noble DW, Whiting MJ (2014a) Colour discrimination and associative learning in hatchling lizards incubated at ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ temperatures. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 68:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clark BF, Amiel JJ, Shine R, Noble DWA, Whiting MJ (2014b) Colour discrimination and associative learning in hatchling lizards incubated at ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ temperatures. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 68:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Clarke A, Fraser K (2004) Why does metabolism scale with temperature? Funct Ecol 18:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Coomber P, Crews D, Gonzalez-Lima F (1997) Independent effects of incubation temperature and gonadal sex on the volume and metabolic capacity of brain nuclei in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. J Comp Neurol 380:409–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Day LB (1999) Spatial and reversal learning in congenetic lizards with different foraging strategies. Anim Behav 57:393–407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Day LB, Ismail N, Wilczynski W (2003) Use of position and feature cues in discrimination learning by the whiptail lizard (Cnemidophorus inornatus). J Comp Psychol 117:440–448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dugatkin LA, Alfieri MS (2003) Boldness, behavioral inhibition and learning. Ethol Ecol Evol 15:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dukas R (2004) Evolutionary biology of animal cognition. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 35:347–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dukas R, Bernays EA (2000) Learning improves growth rate in grasshoppers. Proc Natl Acad Sci 97:2637–2640CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dukas R, Duan JJ (2000) Potential fitness consequences of associative learning in a parasitoid wasp. Behav Ecol 11:536–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fleishman LJ, Loew ER, Whiting MJ (2011) High sensitivity to short wavelengths in a lizard and implications for understanding the evolution of visual systems in lizards. Proc R Soc Lond B: Biol Sci 278(1720):2891–2899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Goulet CT, Thompson MB, Michelangeli M, Wong BBM, Chapple DG (2017a) Thermal physiology: a new dimension of the pace-of-life syndrome. J Anim Ecol 56:1269–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Goulet CT, Thompson MBA, Chapple DG (2017b) Repeatability and correlation of physiological traits: do ectotherms have a “thermal type”? Ecol Evol 7:710–719CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Greer AE (1989) The biology and evolution of Australian lizards. Surrey Beatty and Sons, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  51. Guenther A, Brust V, Dersen M, Trillmich F (2013) Learning and personality types are related in cavies (Cavia aperea). J Comp Psychol 128:74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Guillette LM, Reddon AR, Hurd PL, Sturdy CB (2009) Exploration of a novel space is associated with individual differences in learning speed in black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus. Behav Process 82:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guillette LM, Reddon AR, Hoeschele M, Sturdy CB (2011) Sometimes slower is better: slow-exploring birds are more sensitive to changes in a vocal discrimination task. Proc Biol Sci R Soc 278:767–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hadfield J (2010) MCMC methods for multi-response generalized linear mixed models: the MCMCglmm R package. J Stat Softw 33(2):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Isler K, van Schaik CP (2006) Metabolic costs of brain size evolution. Biol Lett 2:557–560CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Jones JC, Helliwell P, Beekman M, Maleszka R, Oldroyd BP (2005) The effects of rearing temperature on developmental stability and learning and memory in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 191:1121–1129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Killen SS, Marras S, Metcalfe NB, McKenzie DJ, Domenici P (2013) Environmental stressors alter relationships between physiology and behaviour. Trends Ecol Evol 28:651–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kotrschal A, Lievens EJ, Dahlbom J, Bundsen A, Semenova S, Sundvik M, Maklakov AA, Winberg S, Panula P, Kolm N (2014) Artificial selection on relative brain size reveals a positive genetic correlation between brain size and proactive personality in the guppy. Evolution 68:1139–1149CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Kotrschal A, Corral-Lopez A, Szidat S, Kolm N (2015) The effect of brain size evolution on feeding propensity, digestive efficiency, and juvenile growth. Evolution 69:3013–3020CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Le Galliard J-F, Paquet M, Cisel M, Montes-Poloni L, Franklin C (2012) Personality and the pace-of-life syndrome: variation and selection on exploration, metabolism and locomotor performances. Funct Ecol 27:136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lovegrove B (2003) The influence of climate on the basal metabolic rate of small mammals: a slow–fast metabolic continuum. J Comp Physiol B 173:87–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Luna S, Font E (2013) Use of an infrared thermographic camera to measure field body temperatures of small lacertid lizards. Herpetol Rev 44:59–62Google Scholar
  63. Maille A, Schradin C (2017) Ecophysiology of cognition: how do environmentally induced changes in physiology affect cognitive performance? Biol Rev 92(2):1101–1112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mamuneas D, Spence AJ, Manica A, King AJ (2014) Bolder stickleback fish make faster decisions, but they are not less accurate. Behav Ecol 26(1):91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mathot KJ, Dall SR (2013) Metabolic rates can drive individual differences in information and insurance use under the risk of starvation. Am Nat 182:611–620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Mathot KJ, Nicolaus M, Araya-Ajoy YG, Dingemanse NJ, Kempenaers B, Grémillet D (2014) Does metabolic rate predict risk-taking behaviour? A field experiment in a wild passerine bird. Funct Ecol 29:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Matzel LD, Townsend DA, Grossman H, Han YR, Hale G, Zappulla M, Light K, Kolata S (2006) Exploration in outbred mice covaries with general learning abilities irrespective of stress reactivity, emotionality, and physical attributes. Neurobiol Learn Mem 86:228–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. McQuillan MA, Roth TC, Huynh AV, Rice AM (2018) Hybrid chickadees are deficient in learning and memory. Evolution 72(5):1155–1164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Merritt L, Matthews PG, White CR (2013) Performance correlates of resting metabolic rate in garden skinks Lampropholis delicata. J Comp Physiol B 183:663–673CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mesquita FO, Borcato FL, Huntingford FA (2015a) Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: a possible link to stress coping style. Behav Process 115:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mesquita FO, Borcato FL, Huntingford FA (2015b) Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: a possible link to stress coping style. Behav Process 115:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Michelangeli M, Chapple DG, Wong BBM (2016a) Are behavioural syndromes sex specific? Personality in a widespread lizard species. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 70:1911–1919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Michelangeli M, Wong BB, Chapple DG (2016b) It’sa trap: sampling bias due to animal personality is not always inevitable. Behav Ecol 27:62–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Modahl CM, Mrinalini, Frietze S, Mackessy SP (2018) Adaptive evolution of distinct prey-specific toxin genes in rear-fanged snake venom. Proc Biol Sci R Soc 285:20181003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moiron M, Mathot KJ, Dingemanse NJ (2016) A multi-level approach to quantify speed-accuracy trade-offs in great tits (Parus major). Behav Ecol 27:1539–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Moule H, Michelangeli M, Thompson M, Chapple D (2016) The influence of urbanization on the behaviour of an Australian lizard and the presence of an activity–exploratory behavioural syndrome. J Zool 298:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Niemela PT, Dingemanse NJ, Alioravainen N, Vainikka A, Kortet R (2013a) Personality pace-of-life hypothesis: testing genetic associations among personality and life history. Behav Ecol 24:935–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Niemela PT, Vainikka A, Forsman JT, Loukola OJ, Kortet R (2013b) How does variation in the environment and individual cognition explain the existence of consistent behavioral differences? Ecol Evol 3:457–464CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Noble DW, Byrne RW, Whiting MJ (2014) Age-dependent social learning in a lizard. Biol Lett 10:20140430CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Øverli Ø, Sørensen C, Pulman KG, Pottinger TG, Korzan W, Summers CH, Nilsson GE (2007) Evolutionary background for stress-coping styles: relationships between physiological, behavioral, and cognitive traits in non-mammalian vertebrates. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 31:396–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Papp S, Vincze E, Preiszner B, Liker A, Bókony V (2014) A comparison of problem-solving success between urban and rural house sparrows. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 69:471–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pasquier G, Grüter C (2016) Individual learning performance and exploratory activity are linked to colony foraging success in a mass-recruiting ant. Behav Ecol 27:1702–1709. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pruitt JN, Riechert SE (2009) Sex matters: sexually dimorphic fitness consequences of a behavioural syndrome. Anim Behav 78:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Plummer KE, Siriwardena GM, Conway GJ, Risely K, Toms MP (2015) Is supplementary feeding in gardens a driver of evolutionary change in a migratory bird species? Glob Chang Biol 21(12):4353–4363CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Pruitt JN, Demes KW, Dittrich-Reed DR (2011) Temperature mediates shifts in individual aggressiveness, activity level, and social behavior in a spider. Ethology 117:318–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Range F, Bugnyar T, Schlögl C, Kotrschal K (2006) Individual and sex differences in learning abilities of ravens. Behav Process 73:100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Reale D, Garant D, Humphries MM, Bergeron P, Careau V, Montiglio PO (2010) Personality and the emergence of the pace-of-life syndrome concept at the population level. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 365:4051–4063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shettleworth SJ (2001) Animal cognition and animal behaviour. Anim Behav 61:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shine R (2003) Effects of pregnancy on locomotor performance: an experimental study on lizards. Oecologia 136:450–456CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Šíchová K, Koskela E, Mappes T, Lantová P, Boratyński Z (2014) On personality, energy metabolism and mtDNA introgression in bank voles. Anim Behav 92:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sih A, Bell AM (2008) Insights for behavioral ecology from behavioral syndromes. Adv Study Behav 38:227–281CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Sih A, Del Giudice M (2012) Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 367:2762–2772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sih A, Bell A, Johnson JC, Ziemba RE (2004) Behavioral syndromes: an ingtegrative overview. Q Rev Biol 79:241–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sild E, Sepp T, Hõrak P (2011) Behavioural trait covaries with immune responsiveness in a wild passerine. Brain Behav Immun 25:1349–1354CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Stapley J (2006) Individual variation in preferred body temperature covaries with social behaviours and colour in male lizards. J Therm Biol 31:362–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2001) Using multivariate statistics. Allyn Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  97. Tingley R, Thompson MB, Hartley S, Chapple DG (2016) Patterns of niche filling and expansion across the invaded ranges of an Australian lizard. Ecography 39:270–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Titulaer M, van Oers K, Naguib M (2012) Personality affects learning performance in difficult tasks in a sex-dependent way. Anim Behav 83:723–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Waldman B (1985) Olfactory basis of kin recognition in toad tadpoles. J Comp Physiol A 156:565–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Williams JT (1967) A test for dominance of cues in the spectacled caiman. Psychon Sci 8:280CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  2. 2.Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental ScienceThe University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations