Advertisement

Euphytica

, 214:54 | Cite as

Phenotypic variation in root architecture traits and their relationship with eco-geographical and agronomic features in a core collection of tetraploid wheat landraces (Triticum turgidum L.)

  • Magdalena Ruiz
  • Patricia Giraldo
  • Juan M. González
Article
  • 215 Downloads

Abstract

To obtain varieties with root systems adapted to marginal environments it is necessary to search for new genotypes in genetically diverse materials, such as landraces that are more likely to carry novel alleles for different root features. A core collection of ‘durum’ wheat, including three subspecies (dicoccon, turgidum and durum) from contrasting eco-geographical zones, was evaluated for root traits and shoot weight at the seminal root stage. Distinctive rooting phenotypes were characterized within each subspecies, mainly in subsp. durum. Contrasting rooting types, including large roots with shallow distributions, and others with high root numbers were identified. Correlations with climatic traits showed that root shape is more relevant in adaptation to eco-geographical zones in subsp. dicoccon, whereas in subsp. turgidum and durum, which come from warmer and drier areas, both size and shape of roots could have adaptive roles. Root traits with the largest positive effects on certain yield components under limited water conditions included root diameter in subsp. dicoccon, root size in turgidum, and root number in durum. Additionally, shoot weight at the seedling stage had important effects in subsp. turgidum and durum. Twenty-eight marker–trait associations (MTAs) previously identified in this collection for agronomic or quality traits were associated with seminal root traits. Some markers were associated with only one root trait, but others were associated with up to six traits. These MTAs and the genetic variability characterized for root traits in this collection can be exploited in further work to improve drought tolerance and resource capture in wheat.

Keywords

Germplasm MTAs Root characteristics Triticum dicoccon Triticum durum 

Abbreviations

D

Mean root diameter

ETP

Evapotranspiration potential

L

Total root length

MAV

Minimum angle with respect to the vertical

MRA

Mean of all root angles with respect to the vertical

MxAV

Maximum angle with respect to the vertical

NR

Root numbers

PL

Primary root length

RSA

Root system architecture

S

Total root surface area

V

Total root volume

W

Shoot weight

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by projects RFP2015-00008- C04-01 and AGL2016-77149 from the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, and the European Fund for Regional Development (FEDER). We thank Eva Friero and Alicia del Amo for the technical assistance.

Supplementary material

10681_2018_2133_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 Description of the test environments. Meteorological data from November to June (DOCX 16 kb)
10681_2018_2133_MOESM2_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 2 Supplementary material 2 Means of the RSA traits and shoot weight (W) for each subspecies of the 94 genotypes analysed (DOCX 17 kb)
10681_2018_2133_MOESM3_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Supplementary material 3 Supplementary material 3 Significant correlations (r values) between the RSA and the agronomic traits for each subspecies evaluated in wetter (C07) and dry (N and C14) environments (DOCX 20 kb)
10681_2018_2133_MOESM4_ESM.docx (23 kb)
Supplementary material 4 Supplementary material 4 MTAs for agronomic and quality traits, significantly associated with root traits determined by linear regression analysis (DOCX 22 kb)

References

  1. Ayalew H, Liu J, Yan G (2017) Identification and validation of root length QTLs for water stress resistance in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica 213:126.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-017-1914-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bektas H, Hohn CE, Waines JG (2016) Root and shoot traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces and cultivars. Euphytica 212:297–311.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-016-1770-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bengough AG, Gordon DC, Al-Menaie H, Ellis RP et al (2004) Gel observation chamber for rapid screening of root traits in cereal seedlings. Plant Soil 262:63–70.  https://doi.org/10.1023/b:plso.0000037029.82618.27 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blum A (1996) Crop responses to drought and the interpretation of adaptation. Plant Growth Regul 20:135–148.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1299-6_8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bodner G, Leitner D, Nakhforoosh A, Sobotik M, Moder K, Kaul H-P (2013) A statistical approach to root system classification. Front Plant Sci 4:2–15.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bordes J, Goudemand E, Duchalais L, Chevarin L et al (2014) Genome-wide association mapping of three important traits using bread wheat elite breeding populations. Mol Breed 33:755–768.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-013-0004-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Botwright Acuña TL, Rebetzke GJ, He X, Maynol E et al (2014) Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with root penetration ability of wheat in contrasting environments. Mol Breed 34:631–642.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-014-0063-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Canè MA, Maccaferri M, Nazemi G, Salvi S, Francia R, Colalongo C, Tuberosa R (2014) Association mapping for root architectural traits in durum wheat seedlings as related to agronomic performance. Mol Breed 34:1629–1645.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-014-0177-1 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Christopher J, Christopher M, Jennings R, Jones S, Fletcher S, Borrell A, Manschadi AM, Jordan D, Mace E, Hammer G (2013) QTL for root angle and number in a population developed from bread wheats (Triticum aestivum) with constrasting adaptation to water-limited environments. Theor Appl Genet 126:1563–1574.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-013-2074-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark LJ, Price AH, Steele KA, Whalley WR (2008) Evidence from near-isogenic lines that root penetration increases with root diameter and bending stiffness in rice. Funct Plant Biol 35:1163–1171.  https://doi.org/10.1071/FP08132 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Comas LH, Becker SR, Von Mark VC, Byrne PF, Dierig DA (2013) Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought. Front Plant Sci 4:1–16.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00442 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Dorlodot S, Forster B, Pagès L, Price A, Tuberosa R, Draye X (2007) Root system architecture: opportunities and constraints for genetic improvement of crops. Trends Plant Sci 12:474–481.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2007.08.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ehdaie B, Layne AP, Waines JG (2012) Root system plasticity to drought influences grain yield in bread wheat. Euphytica 186:219–232.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-011-0585-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fitter A (2002) Characteristics and functions of root systems. In: Waisel Y, Eshel A, Beeckman T, Kafkafi U (eds) Plant roots: the hidden half, 3rd edn. CRC Press, New York, pp 15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gioia T, Nagel KA, Beleggia R, Fragasso M et al (2015) Impact of domestication on the phenotypic architecture of durum wheat under contrasting nitrogen fertilization. J Exp Bot 66:5519–5530.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erv289 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Giraldo P, Royo C, González M, Carrillo JM, Ruiz M (2016) Genetic diversity and association mapping for agromorphological and grain quality traits of a structured collection of durum wheat landraces including subsp. durum, turgidum and diccocon. PLoS ONE 11:e0166577.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166577 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L et al (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327:812–818.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1185383 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. González JM, Friero E, Selfa L, Froilán S, Jouve N (2016) A comparative study of root system architecture in seedlings of Brachypodium spp. using three plant growth supports. Cereal Res Commun 44:69–78.  https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.43.2015.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hund A, Trachsel S, Stamp P (2009) Growth of axile and lateral roots of maize: I development of a phenotying platform. Plant Soil 325:335–349.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-9984-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hurd E (1974) Phenotype and drought tolerance in wheat. Agric Meteorol 14:39–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-41273-7.50010-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014) Climate change 2014—impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: regional aspects. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Jain N, Singh GP, Yadav R, Pandey R et al (2014) Root trait characteristics and genotypic response in wheat under different water regimes. Cereal Res Commun 42:426–438.  https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.42.2014.3.6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kabir MR, Liu G, Guan P, Wang F et al (2015) Mapping QTLs associated with root traits using two different populations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica 206:175–190.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-015-1495-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Khan A, Azam F, Ali A, Tariq M, Amin M (2005) Inter-relationship and path coefficient analysis for biometric traits in drought tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Asian J Plant Sci 4:540–543.  https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2005.540.543 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kruskal WH, Wallis WA (1952) Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. J Am Stat Assoc 47:583–621.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2280779 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lafitte H, Price AH, Courtois B (2004) Yield response to water deficit in an upland rice mapping population: associations among traits and genetic markers. Theor Appl Genet 109:1237–1246.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-004-1731-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu X, Li R, Chang X, Jing R (2013) Mapping QTLs for seedling root traits in a doubled haploid wheat population under different water regimes. Euphytica 189:51–66.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-012-0690-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lobet G, Pagès L, Draye X (2011) A novel image-analysis toolbox enabling quantitative analysis of root system architecture. Plant Physiol 157:29–39.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.111.179895 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Løes A-K, Gahoonia TS (2004) Genetic variation in specific root length in Scandinavian wheat and barley accessions. Euphytica 137:243–249.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EUPH.0000041587.02009.2e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lynch J (1995) Root architecture and plant productivity. Plant Physiol 109:7–13.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.109.1.7 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Maccaferri M, Sanguineti MC, Corneti S, Ortega JLA et al (2008) Quantitative trait loci for grain yield and adaptation of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) across a wide range of water availability. Genetics 178:489–511.  https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.107.077297 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Maccaferri M, El-Feki W, Nazemi G, Salvi S et al (2016) Prioritizing quantitative trait loci for root system architecture in tetraploid wheat. J Exp Bot 67:1161–1178.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erw039 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Manschadi AM, Hammer GL, Christopher JT, deVoil P (2008) Genotypic variation in seedling root architectural traits and implications for drought adaptation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Soil 303:115–129.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9492-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marone D, Laido G, Gadaleta A, Colasuonno P et al (2012) A high-density consensus map of A and B wheat genomes. Theor Appl Genet 125:1619–1638.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-012-1939-y CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Nagel KA, Kastenholz B, Jahnke S, Van Dusschoten D et al (2009) Temperature responses of roots: impact on growth, root system architecture and implications for phenotyping. Funct Plant Biol 36:947–959.  https://doi.org/10.1071/FP09184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nakhforoosh A, Grausgruber H, Kaul H-P, Bodner G (2014) Wheat root diversity and root functional characterization. Plant Soil 380:211–229.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-014-2082-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Narayanan S, Mohan A, Gill KS, Prasad PV (2014) Variability of root traits in spring wheat germplasm. PLoS ONE 9:e100317.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100317 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. O’Brien L (1979) Genetic variability of root growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crop Pasture Sci 30:587–595.  https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9790587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oyanagi A (1994) Gravitropic response growth angle and vertical distribution of roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Soil 165:323–326.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00008076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Paez-Garcia A, Motes CM, Scheible W-R, Chen R et al (2015) Root traits and phenotyping strategies for plant improvement. Plants 4:334–355.  https://doi.org/10.3390/plants4020334 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Palta JA, Fillery IR, Rebetzke GJ (2007) Restricted-tillering wheat does not lead to greater investment in roots and early nitrogen uptake. Field Crop Res 104:52–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2007.03.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Palta JA, Chen X, Milroy SP, Rebetzke GJ, Dreccer MF, Watt M (2011) Large root systems: are they useful in adapting wheat to dry environments? Funct Plant Biol 38:347–354.  https://doi.org/10.1071/FP11031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Petrarulo M, Marone D, Ferragonio P, Cattivelli L, Rubiales D, De Vita P, Mastrangelo AM (2015) Genetic analysis of root morphological traits in wheat. Mol Genet Genom 290:785–806.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00438-014-0957-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Poorter H, Nagel O (2000) The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: a quantitative review. Funct Plant Biol 27:1191.  https://doi.org/10.1071/PP99173_CO CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Price A, Steele KA, Gorham J, Bridges JM et al (2002) Upland rice grown in soil-filled chambers and exposed to contrasting water-deficit regimes: I. Root distribution, water use and plant water status. Field Crop Res 76:11–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(02)00012-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rebetzke G, Richards R (1999) Genetic improvement of early vigour in wheat. Crop Pasture Sci 50:291–302.  https://doi.org/10.1071/A98125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Richards R, Passioura J (1989) A breeding program to reduce the diameter of the major xylem vessel in the seminal roots of wheat and its effect on grain yield in rain-fed environments. Crop Pasture Sci 40:943–950.  https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9890943 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ruiz M, Aguiriano E, Carrillo J (2008) Effects of N fertilization on yield for low-input production in Spanish wheat landraces (Triticum turgidum L. and Triticum monococcum L.). Plant Breed 127:20–23.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0523.2007.01406.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ruiz M, Giraldo P, Royo C, Villegas D, Jose Aranzana M, Carrillo JM (2012) Diversity and genetic structure of a collection of Spanish durum wheat landraces. Crop Sci 52:2262–2275.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2012.02.0081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ruiz M, Giraldo P, Royo C, Carrillo JM (2013) Creation and validation of the Spanish durum wheat core collection. Crop Sci 53:2530–2537.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2013.04.0238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sanguineti MC, Li S, Maccaferri M, Corneti S, Rotondo F, Chiari T, Tuberosa R (2007) Genetic dissection of seminal root architecture in elite durum wheat germplasm. Ann Appl Biol 151:291–305.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2007.00198.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sharma S, Xu S, Ehdaie B, Hoops A, Close TJ, Lukaszewski AJ, Waines JG (2011) Dissection of QTL effects for root traits using a chromosome arm-specific mapping population in bread wheat. Theor Appl Genet 122:759–769.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-010-1484-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Wasson AP, Richards RA, Chatrath R, Misra SC et al (2012) Traits and selection strategies to improve root systems and water uptake in water-limited wheat crops. J Exp Bot 63:3485–3498.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ers111 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Worland AJA, Borner V, Korzun W, Li M, Petrovic S, Sayers EJ (1998) The influence of photoperiod genes on the adaptability of European winter wheats. Euphytica 100:385–394.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018327700985 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Worzella W (1932) Root development in hardy and non-hardy winter wheat varieties. Agron J 24:626–637.  https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1932.00021962002400080005x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhao J, Bodner G, Rewald B, Leitner D, Nagel KA, Nakhforoosh A (2017) Root architecture simulation improves the inference from seedling root phenotyping towards mature root systems. J Exp Bot 68:965–982.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erw494 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhu J, Ingram PA, Benfey PN, Elich T (2011) From lab to field, new approaches to phenotyping root system architecture. Curr Opin Plant Biol 14:310–317.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2011.03.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Genetic Resources CentreNational Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and TechnologyAlcalá de HenaresSpain
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology-Plant Biology, School of Agricultural EngineeringUniversidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad UniversitariaMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Edificio de Biología Celular y GenéticaUniversidad de AlcaláMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations