, 214:40 | Cite as

Resistance of barley variety ‘Venezia’ and its reflection in the Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei population



Genetic resistance is an efficient and environmentally acceptable way of limiting the damaging effects of plant pathogens on yield and quality of crops. Tests of winter barley variety Venezia revealed an unknown resistance to all tested Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei isolates. Response type arrays (RTAs) obtained here were created using common avirulent (RT 0) isolates and virulent (RT 4) isolates that first appeared in 2011. RTA of Venezia was identical to RTAs of six other varieties, but differed from RTAs of all other previously tested varieties. Venezia was the first variety to be registered with this resistance, and it is recommended that the resistance be designated Ve. Among 905 isolates randomly collected from the Czech aerial pathogen populations from 2009 to 2015, 13 contained Ve virulence. Each of the isolates differed from the others and thus belonged to different pathotypes. Seven of these 13 pathotypes were collected in the western region of the Czech Republic in an area close to Germany, where Venezia was grown. This finding could support the hypothesis that pathotypes virulent to Venezia have migrated from Germany into the Czech Republic.


Coevolution Hordeum vulgare Powdery mildew Resistance genes Virulences 



Excellent technical assistance of Mrs. Dagmar Krejčířová is gratefully acknowledged. The article was generated within project no. RO1117 supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic.


  1. Boesen B, Hovmøller MS, Jørgensen JH (1996) Designations of barley and wheat powdery mildew resistance and virulence in Europe. In: Integrated Control of Cereal Mildews and Rusts: Towards Coordination of Research Across Europe. In: Limpert E, Finckh MR, Wolfe MS (eds) European commission. Luxembourg, Brussels, pp 2–9Google Scholar
  2. Bourras S, McNally KE, Mueller MC, Wicker T, Keller B (2016) Avirulence genes in cereal powdery mildews: the gene-for-gene hypothesis 2.0. Front. Plant Sci 7:241. Google Scholar
  3. Brown JKM, Hovmøller MS (2002) Epidemiology—aerial dispersal of pathogens on the global and continental scales and its impact on plant disease. Science 297:537–541. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dreiseitl A (2008) Virulence frequency to powdery mildew resistances in winter barley cultivars. Czech J Genet Plant Breed 44:160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dreiseitl A (2011a) Resistance of ‘Roxana’ to powdery mildew and its presence in some European spring barley cultivars. Plant Breed 130:419–422. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dreiseitl A (2011b) Resistance of ‘Laverda’ to powdery mildew and its presence in some winter barley cultivars. Cereal Res Commun 39:569–576. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dreiseitl A (2011c) Dissimilarity of barley powdery mildew resistances Heils Hanna and Lomerit. Czech J Genet Plant Breed 47:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dreiseitl A (2013) Postulation of genes for resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley cultivars registered in the Czech Republic from 1996 to 2010. Euphytica 191:183–189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dreiseitl A (2014) Pathogenic divergence of Central European and Australian populations of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Annals Appl Biol 165:364–372. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dreiseitl A (2015a) Rare virulences of barley powdery mildew found in aerial populations in the Czech Republic from 2009 to 2014. Czech J Genet Plant Breed 51:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dreiseitl A (2015b) Changes in virulence frequencies and higher fitness of simple pathotypes in the Czech population of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Plant Prot Sci 51:67–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dreiseitl A (2016) Emerging Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei pathotypes reveal ‘Psaknon’ resistance in European barley varieties. J Agric Sci 154:1082–1089. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dreiseitl A (2017a) Genes for resistance to powdery mildew in European barley cultivars registered in the Czech Republic from 2011 to 2015. Plant Breed. Google Scholar
  14. Dreiseitl A (2017b) Heterogeneity of powdery mildew resistance revealed in accessions of the ICARDA wild barley collection. Front Plant Sci 8:202. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Dreiseitl A, Platz G (2012) Powdery mildew resistance genes in barley varieties grown in Australia. Crop Pasture Sci 63:997–1006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Flégr J (2005) Evoluční biologie. Academia, PragueGoogle Scholar
  17. Flor HH (1971) Current status of the gene-for-gene concept. Annual Rev Phytopathol 9:275–296. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jahoor A, Fischbeck G (1987) Sources of resistance to powdery mildew in barley lines derived from Hordeum spontaneum collected in Israel. Plant Breed 99:274–281. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jørgensen JH (1988) Erysiphe graminis, powdery mildew of cereals and grasses. Adv Plant Pathol 6. Academic Press, London, pp 137–157Google Scholar
  20. Klocke B, Flath K, Miedaner T (2013) Virulence phenotypes in powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) populations and resistance genes in triticale (x Triticosecale). Eur J Plant Pathol 137:463–476. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Komínková E, Dreiseitl A, Malečková E, Doležel J, Valárik M (2016) Genetic diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei in central Europe and its comparison with Australian population. PLoS ONE 11:e0167099. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Limpert E, Müller K (1994) Designation of pathotypes of plant pathogens. J Phytopathol 140:346–358. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Limpert E, Andrivon D, Fischbeck G (1990) Virulence patterns in populations of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei in Europe in 1986. Plant Pathol 39:402–415. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McDonald BA, Linde C (2002) Pathogen population genetics, evolutionary potential, and durable resistance. Annual Rev Phytopathol 40:349–379. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McDonald BA, Stukenbrock EH (2016) Rapid emergence of pathogens in agro-ecosystems: global threats to agricultural sustainability and food security. Phil Trans R Soc B 371(2016):0026. Google Scholar
  26. McIntosh RA, Milne DL, Cusick JL (1983) Vulnerability of triticales to wheat stem rust. Canadian J Plant Pathology 5:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. O’Hara RB, Brown JKM (1998) Movement of barley powdery mildew within field plots. Plant Pathol 47:394–400. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schwarzbach E (1979) A high throughput jet trap for collecting mildew spores on living leaves. J Phytopathol 94:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shtaya MJY, Sillero JC, Flath K, Pickering R, Rubiales D (2007) The resistance to leaf rust and powdery mildew of recombinant lines of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) derived from H. vulgare x H. bulbosum crosses). Plant Breed 126:259–267. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Silvar C, Casas AM, Igartua E, Ponce-Molina LJ, Gracia MP, Schweizer G, Herz M, Flath K, Waugh R, Kopahnke D, Ordon F (2011) Resistance to powdery mildew in Spanish barley landraces is controlled by different sets of quantitative trait loci. Theor Appl Genet 123:1019–1028. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Torp J, Jensen HP, Jørgensen JH (1978) Powdery mildew resistance genes in 106 northwest European spring barley varieties. Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University Copenhagen, Denmark, pp 75–102Google Scholar
  32. Troch V, Audenaert K, Wyand RA, Haesaert G, Höfte M, Brown JKM (2014) Formae speciales of cereal powdery mildew: close or distant relatives? Mol Plant Pathol 15:304–314. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Walker AS, Bouguennec A, Confais J, Morgant G, Leroux P (2011) Evidence of host-range expansion from new powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) infection of triticale (Triticosecale) in France. Plant Pathol 60:207–220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wendler N, Mascher M, Himmelbach A, Johnston P, Pickering R, Stein N (2015) Bulbosum to go: a toolbox to utilize Hordeum vulgare/bulbosum introgressions for breeding and beyond. Molec Plant 8:1507–1519. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agrotest Fyto LtdKroměřížCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations