, 214:16 | Cite as

Identification of the S locus core sequences determining self-incompatibility and S multigene family from draft genome sequences of radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

  • Dong-Seon Kim
  • Sunggil Kim


The S core and its flanking sequences were identified from two independent draft genome sequences of radish (Raphanus sativus L.). After gap-filling with PCR, the S core regions and full-length S receptor kinase (SRK) genes from two radish genomes were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the SRK genes clearly showed that one S core region belonged to the class I S haplotypes, but the other was included in the class II S haplotypes. Three sequences showing homology with known transposable elements were identified in the core regions, and one intact copia-type long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon containing a 4125-bp open reading frame (ORF) was identified in the class I S haplotype. A total of 61 genes showing homology with the SRK genes were identified from two draft genome sequences. Among them, the RsKD1 showed the highest homology with the SRK genes. There was 90% nucleotide sequence identity between the RsKD1 and RsSRK1 genes in the kinase domains. The phylogenetic tree of SRK genes and 13 most closely related homologs showed that all homologs were more closely related to the class II SRK genes than to the class I SRKs. Physical mapping of radish SRK-homologous genes and their B. rapa orthologs showed that two radish homologs and their B. rapa orthologs were tightly linked to the SRK genes in radish and B. rapa genomes. Sequence information about multiple SRK-homologs identified in this study would be helpful for designing reliable primer pairs for faithful PCR amplification of the SRK alleles, leading to improvement of the S haplotyping system in radish breeding programs.


Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Self-incompatibility S multigene family S receptor kinase (SRK) S haplotyping system 



This study was supported by the Agriculture Research Center program, Golden Seed Project (Center for Horticultural Seed Development, No. 213007-05-1-SBB10), and a grant from the Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program (Plant Molecular Breeding Center No. PJ011034). The authors thank Ji-Wha Hur, Jeong-Ahn Yoo, and Su-jung Kim for their dedicated technical assistance.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Biotechnology, Biotechnology Research InstituteChonnam National UniversityGwangjuKorea

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