Advertisement

Euphytica

, 213:201 | Cite as

Breeding opportunities for early, free-threshing and semi-dwarf Triticum monococcum L.

  • N. Watanabe
Article

Abstract

Einkorn wheat, Triticum monococcum L. (2n = 2x = 14, AmAm genome), is a primitive, cultivated form of diploid wheat. The shortcoming of einkorn is that it lacks the free-threshing habit. Early heading and semi-dwarf traits are also required to fit modern agricultural practice. In the present study we developed T. monococcum pre-breeding germplasm having early, free threshing traits by utilizing an early heading source, two sources of soft glume (spike) and three sources of semi-dwarfism to combine their phenotypes into pre-breeding materials. We found two different genes determined free threshing of einkorn wheat. One of them was the sog (soft glume) gene from Triticum sinskajae Filat. et Kurkiev (2n = 2x = 14, AmAm genome) and another was the sos (soft spike) gene, which was completely linked or pleiotropic with the gene for semi-dwarfism. The genes sos, spd (short peduncle) and sd17654 (semi-dwarf CItr 17654) were utilized to develop semi-dwarf T. monococcum lines. Field performance of 6 early and free-threshing pre-breeding materials with sos and spd genes were tested over three crop seasons. Five semi-dwarf pre-breeding materials (PBMs) were obtained. However, these materials had slightly less grain yield than #252 (tall and hulled check) and PBM-1 (tall free-threshing check). Harvest index of the pre-breeding materials was improved due to the presence of sos and spd genes. If optimized cultivation practice is performed, these pre-breeding materials can be utilized as sources of early, free-threshing and semi-dwarf traits to produce modern T. monococcum varieties.

Keywords

Earliness Free threshing Pre-breeding materials Semi-dwarfism Soft spike Triticum monococcum L. Triticum sinskajae A. Filat. et Kurk 

Notes

Acknowledgements

NW acknowledges Dr. H. S. Dhaliwal and the National Small Grain Collection (NGSC), Aberdeen, Idaho, USA to provide me the seed of T. monococcum. NW thanks Dr. D. L. Klindworth, USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Fargo, for helpful comments on the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10681_2017_1987_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1521 kb)

References

  1. Abdel-Aal E-SM, Young JC, Wood PJ, Rabalski I, Hucl P, Falk D, Frégeau- Reid J (2002) Einkorn: a potential candidate for developing high lutein wheat. Cereal Chem 79:455–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amagai Y, Martinek P, Watanabe N, Kuboyama T (2014) Microsatellite mapping of genes for branched spike and soft glumes in Triticum monococcum L. Genet Res Crop Evol 61:465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ansari MJ, Kumar R, Singh K, Dhaliwal HS (2014) Characterization and Molecular mapping of a soft glume mutant in diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum L.). Cereal Res Commun 42:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin RB, Bingham J, Blackwell RD, Evans LT, Ford MA, Morgan CL, Taylor M (1980) Genetic improvements in winter wheat yields since 1900 and associated physiological changes. J Agric Sci 94:673–689Google Scholar
  5. Austin RB, Morgan CL, Ford MA, Bhagwat SG (1982) Flag leaf photosynthesis of Triticum aestivum and related diploid and tetraploid species. Ann Bot 49:177–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Austin RB, Morgan CL, Ford MA (1986) Dry matter yields and photosynthetic rates of diploid and hexaploid Triticum species. Ann Bot 57:847–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Austin RB, Ford MA, Morgan CL (1989) Genetic improvement in the yield of winter wheat: a further evaluation. J Agric Sci 112:295–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bamakhrama HS, Halloran GM, Wilson JH (1984) Components of yield in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats (Triticum spp.). Ann Bot 54:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borghi B, Castagna R, Corbellini M, Heun M, Salamini F (1996) Breadmaking quality of einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum). Cereal Chem 73:208–214Google Scholar
  10. Brandolini A, Hidalgo A, Plizzari L, Erba D (2011) Impact of genetic and environmental factors on einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. subsp. monococcum) polysaccharides. J Cereal Sci 50:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castagna R, Borghi B, Bossinger G, Salamini F (1993) Induction and characterization of Triticum monococcum mutants affecting plant and ear morphology. J Genet Breed 47:127–138Google Scholar
  12. Castagna R, Borghi B, Di Fonzo N, Heu M, Salamini F (1995) Yield and related traits of einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) in different environments. Eur J Agron 4:371–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eagles HA, Cane K, Vallance N (2009) The flow of alleles of important photoperiod and vernalisation genes through Australian wheat. Crop Pasture Sci 60:646–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Filatenko AA, Kurkiev UK (1975) A new species—Tritisum sinskajae A.Filat. et Kurk. Trudy po Prikl Bot Genet Selekst 54:239–241 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  15. Guzy MR, Ehdaie B, Waines JG (1989) Yield and its components in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats in diverse environments. Ann Bot 64:635–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Halloran GM, Pennell AL (1982) Grain size and seedling growth of wheat at different ploidy levels. Ann Bot 49:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hidalgo A, Brandolini A, Pompeia C, Piscozzia R (2006) Carotenoids and tocols of einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum L.). J Cereal Sci 44:182–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hidalgo A, Brandolini A, Ratti S (2009) Influence of genetic and environmental factors on selected nutritional traits of Triticum monococcum. J Agric Food Chem 57:6342–6348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jing H-C, Kornyukhin D, Kanyuka K, Orford S, Zlatska A, Mitrofanova OP, Koebner R, Hammond-Kosack K (2007) Identification of variation in adaptively important traits and genome-wide analysis of trait–marker associations in Triticum monococcum. J Exp Bot 58:3749–3764CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kato K, Sonokawa R, Miura H, Sawada S (2003) Dwarfing effect associated with the threshability gene Q on wheat chromosome 5A. Plant Breed 122:489–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kurkiev UK, Filatenko AA (2001) New forms of sinskaya wheat (Triticum sinskajae) with easy thrashing and short-stem genes. Russ Agric Sci 8:1–6 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  22. Kuspira J, MacLagen J, Bhambhani RN, Sadasivaiah RS, Kim N-S (1989) Genetic and cytogenetic analyses of the A genome of Triticum monococcum L. V. Inheritance and linkage relationships of genes determining the expression of 12 qualitative characters. Genome 32:869–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lavelli V, Hidalgo A, Pompei C, Brandolini A (2009) Radical scavenging activity of einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. subsp. monococcum) whole meal flour and its relationship to soluble phenolic and lipophilic antioxidant content. J Cereal Sci 49:319–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Multani DS, Sharma SK, Dhaliwal HS, Gill KS (1992) Inheritance of induced morphological mutants in Triticutn monococcum L. Plant Breed 109:259–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Özkan H, Brandolini A, Torun A, Altinitas S, Eker S, Kilian B, Braun HJ, Salamini F, Ćakmak I (2007) Natural variation and identification of microelements content in seeds of einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum). In: Buck HT et al (eds) Wheat Production in Stressed Environments. Springer, New York, pp 455–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pena-Chocarro L (1995) In situ conservation of hulled wheat species: the case of Spain. In: Padulosi S, Hammer K and Heller J (eds) Hulled Wheat: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats, July 21–22. Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany, Italy. IPK, Gatersleben, Germany and IPGRI, Rome, Italy, pp 129–146Google Scholar
  27. Ramey TB, Waines JG, Mosjides JA (1988) Detection of repeated genotypes among 93 diploid wheat accessions. Euphytica 37:283–287Google Scholar
  28. Sarvella M, Konzak CF (1978) Mutants of Triticum monococcum. Wheat Inform Serv 45:41–53Google Scholar
  29. Sharma HC, Waines JG (1980) Inheritance of tough rachis in crosses of Triticum monococcum and T. boeticum. J Hered 71:214–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sood S, Kuraparthy V, Bai G, Gill BS (2009) The major threshability genes soft glum (Sog) and tenacious glume (Tg) of diploid and polyploidy wheat, trace their origin to independent mutations at non-orthologous loci. Theor Appl Genet 119:341–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Suchowilska E, Wiwart M, Borejszo Z, Packa D, Kandler W, Krska R (2009) Discrimination analysis of selected yield components and fatty acid composition of chosen Triticum monococcum, Triticum dicoccum and Triticum spelta accessions. J Cereal Sci 49:310–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Szabö TA, Hammer K (1996) Notes on the taxonomy of faro: Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon and T. spelta. In: Padulosi S, Hammer K, Heller J (eds) Hulled wheats, promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. IPGRI, Rome, pp 2–40Google Scholar
  33. Taenzller B, Esposti RF, Vaccino P, Brandolini A, Effgen S, Heun M, Schafer-Pregl Borghi B, Salamini F (2002) Molecular linkage map of einkorn wheat: mapping of storage-protein and soft-glume genes and bread-making quality QTLs. Genet Res 80:131–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Troccoli A, Codianni P (2005) Appropriate seeding rate for einkorn, emmer, and spelt grown under rainfed condition in southern Italy. Eur J Agron 22:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vallega V (1996) Registration of partially free-threshing diploid wheat germplasm. Crop Sci 36:1717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Waines JG (1983) Genetic Resources in diploid wheats: The case for diploid commercial wheats. In: Sakamoto S (ed) Proceedings of the 6th International Wheat Genetics Symposium. Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan pp. 115–122Google Scholar
  37. Zharieva M, Monneveux P (2014) Cultivated einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L. subsp. monococcum): the long life of a founder crop of agriculture. Genet Res Crop Evol 61:677–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of AgricultureIbaraki UniversityInashikiJapan
  2. 2.The Little NurseryTorideJapan

Personalised recommendations