, 213:123 | Cite as

Ex-situ conservation of maize germplasm from different latitudes

  • Pedro Revilla
  • Laura Campo
  • José Ignacio Ruiz de Galarreta
  • Domingo Rios
  • Ángel Álvarez
  • Jesús Moreno-González
  • Amando Ordás
  • Rosa Ana Malvar


Germplasm collections often include open-pollinated varieties from diverse latitudes and climatic areas that cannot be correctly conserved in a single environment. The objective of this research was to investigate if open-pollinated maize varieties from diverse latitudinal and climatic conditions could be conserved in a single location. Twelve varieties from the humid Spain, the dry Spain, and the Canary Island were multiplied in three locations from the humid Spain, one from the dry Spain, and one from the Canary Islands. Hand pollinations were made in 100-plant plots following a randomized complete block design with two replications in five locations during two years. Differences between origins and between varieties were significant for most traits, including those related to growth cycle (male and female flowering and grain moisture). The varieties from each latitudinal and climatic origin did not behave as a consistent germplasm block; contrarily, the location × variety interaction was significant for most traits. The varieties from the humid Spain maintained their ranks of growth cycle across locations and differences between varieties were more important in the dry Spain. The growth cycle of the Canarian varieties was completely different in the dry Spain. We can maintain the varieties from any Spanish environment and latitude at any location, but most varieties could be modified by natural selection for adaptation.


Zea mays Maize Germplasm Adaptation Latitude 



Research was supported by the Spanish Plan for Research and Development (project code RF2010-00004-C04 and AGL2016-77628-R).


  1. Carena MJ (2013a) Challenges and opportunities for developing maize cultivars in the public sector. Euphytica 191:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carena MJ (2013b) Development of cold and drought tolerant short-season maize germplasm for fuel and feed utilization. Crop Breed Appl Biotechnol 13:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carena MJ (2013c) Developing the next generation of diverse and healthier maize cultivars tolerant to climate changes. Euphytica 190:471–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Glover MA, Willmot DB, Darrah LL, Hibbard BE, Zhu X (2005) Diallel analyses of agronomic traits using Chinese and U.S. maize germplasm. Crop Sci 45:1096–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Goodman MM (2005) Broadening the US maize germplasm base. Maydica 50:203–214Google Scholar
  6. Gouesnard B, Rebourg C, Welcker C, Charcosset A (2002) Analysis of photoperiod sensitivity within a collection of tropical maize populations. Gen Res Crop Evol 49:471–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hallauer AR (1992) Registration of BS27 maize germplasm. Crop Sci 32:1512–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hallauer AR, Carena MJ (2014) Adaptation of tropical maize germplasm to temperate environments. Euphytica 196:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Horner ES (1990) Registration of maize germplasm FS8A(S), FS8A(T), FS8B(S), and FS8B(T). Crop Sci 30:964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Moreno-Gonzalez J, Ramos-Gourcy F, Losada E (1997) Breeding potential of European flint and earliness-selected U.S. corn belt dent maize populations. Crop Sci 37:1475–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ordás A (1991) Heterosis in crosses between American and Spanish populations of maize. Crop Sci 31:931–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ordás A, Malvar RA, De Ron AM (1994) Relationships among Ameri-can and Spanish populations of maize. Euphytica 79:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Peña-Asín J, Álvarez A, Ordás A, Ordás B (2013) Evaluation of three cycles of full-sib reciprocal recurrent selection in two maize populations from the Northeast of Spain. Euphytica 191:301–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pollak LM (2003) The history and success of the public-private project on Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM). Adv Agron 78:45–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Revilla P, Soengas P, Malvar RA, Cartea ME, Ordás A (1998) Isozyme variation and Historical relationships among the maize races of Spain. Maydica 43:175–182Google Scholar
  16. Revilla P, Soengas P, Cartea ME, Malvar RA, Ordás A (2003) Isozyme variability among European maize populations and the introduction of maize in Europe. Maydica 48:141–152Google Scholar
  17. Revilla P, Abuín MC, Malvar RA, Soengas P, Ordás B, Ordás A (2005) Genetic variation between Spanish and American versions of sweet corn inbred lines. Plant Breed 124:268–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Revilla P, Boyat A, Álvarez A, Gouesnard B, Soengas P, Ordás A, Malvar RA (2006a) Heterotic patterns among French and Spanish maize populations. Maydica 51:525–535Google Scholar
  19. Revilla P, Boyat A, Álvarez A, Gouesnard B, Ordás B, Rodríguez VM, Ordás A, Malvar RA (2006b) Contribution of autochthonous maize populations for adaptation to European conditions. Euphytica 152:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Samayoa LF, Butrón A, Revilla P, Álvarez A, Malvar RA (2012) Five cycles of mass selection for earliness and ear appearance under corn borer infestation in the maize synthetic BS17. Crop Sci 52:2432–2437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sánchez-Monge E (1962) Razas de maíz en España. Publicaciones del Ministerio de Agricultura, MadridGoogle Scholar
  22. SAS Institute. 2010. SAS Version 9.3. The SAS Institute, Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  23. Steinhoff J, Liu W, Maurer HP, Würschum T, Longin CFH, Ranc N, Reif JC (2012) Exploitation of elite maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm across maturity zones. Crop Sci 52:1534–1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Whitehead FC, Caton HG, Hallauer AR, Vasal S, Cordova H (2006) Incorporation of elite subtropical and tropical maize germplasm into elite temperate germplasm. Maydica 51:43–56Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Revilla
    • 1
  • Laura Campo
    • 2
  • José Ignacio Ruiz de Galarreta
    • 3
  • Domingo Rios
    • 4
  • Ángel Álvarez
    • 5
  • Jesús Moreno-González
    • 2
  • Amando Ordás
    • 1
  • Rosa Ana Malvar
    • 1
  1. 1.Misión Biológica de GaliciaSpanish Research National Council (CSIC)PontevedraSpain
  2. 2.Centro de Investigaciones Agrarias de MabegondoA CoruñaSpain
  3. 3.NEIKER-Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo AgrarioVitoriaSpain
  4. 4.Centro de Conservación de la Biodiversidad Agraria de TenerifeSanta Cruz De Tenerife, TacoronteSpain
  5. 5.Estación Experimental de Aula Dei (CSIC)SaragossaSpain

Personalised recommendations