, Volume 195, Issue 2, pp 279–285 | Cite as

Effect of vernalization and photoperiod on flax flowering time

  • Murali K. Darapuneni
  • Gaylon D. Morgan
  • Amir M. H. Ibrahim
  • Robert W. Duncan


Vernalization and photoperiodism are two important physiological processes related to yield of many cool-season annual crops. The flowering response of 20 flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genotypes to two vernalization regimes (vernalized and unvernalized) and two photoperiod treatments (10 and 14 h) was evaluated in a growth chamber study in 2010 and 2011. The results suggest that photoperiod, vernalization, and genotype all had an effect on earliness as measured by days to anthesis. Unlike flax grown in the Upper US Midwest and Canada, Texas flax is grown in the fall due to high spring and summer temperatures. Genotype interaction was observed with both vernalization and photoperiod. Specifically, flax genotypes from Texas (winter type) were sensitive to both vernalization and photoperiods for flowering. Texas genotypes delayed anthesis for 7 days or more in unvernalized seedlings, whereas flowering time of most other spring grown flax genotypes was unaffected by the vernalization treatments. Texas genotypes also delayed anthesis for 12 days or more under vernalized and short day conditions, whereas most other genotypes were not influenced by photoperiodism in vernalized seedlings. The selection for vernalization and photoperiodic sensitivity in Texas genotypes and introgression of these traits into recently adapted spring grown genotypes is needed for development of high yielding flax genotypes for southern Great Plains production areas.


Flax Flowering Linum usitatissimum L. Photoperiod Vernalization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murali K. Darapuneni
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gaylon D. Morgan
    • 1
  • Amir M. H. Ibrahim
    • 1
  • Robert W. Duncan
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Soil and Crop SciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy and HorticultureUniversity of Nebraska-Lincoln, Panhandle Research and ExtensionScottsbluffUSA
  3. 3.Department of Plant ScienceUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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