, Volume 154, Issue 1–2, pp 195–205 | Cite as

Diallel analyses reveal the genetic control of resistance to ascochyta blight in diverse chickpea and wild Cicer species

  • N. DanehloueipourEmail author
  • G. Yan
  • H. J. Clarke
  • K. H. M. Siddique


Ascochyta blight is a major fungal disease affecting chickpea production worldwide. The genetics of ascochyta blight resistance was studied in five 5 × 5 half-diallel cross sets involving seven genotypes of chickpea (ICC 3996, Almaz, Lasseter, Kaniva, 24B-Isoline, IG 9337 and Kimberley Large), three accessions of Cicer reticulatum (ILWC 118, ILWC 139 and ILWC 184) and one accession of C. echinospermum (ILWC 181) under field conditions. Both F1 and F2 generations were used in the diallel analysis. The disease was rated in the field using a 1–9 scale. Almaz, ICC 3996 and ILWC 118 were the most resistant (rated 3–4) and all other genotypes were susceptible (rated 6–9) to ascochyta blight. Estimates of genetic parameters, following Hayman’s method, showed significant additive and dominant gene actions. The analysis also revealed the involvement of both major and minor genes. Susceptibility was dominant over resistance to ascochyta blight. The recessive alleles were concentrated in the two resistant chickpea parents ICC 3996 and Almaz, and one C. reticulatum genotype ILWC 118. The wild Cicer accessions may have different major or minor resistant genes compared to the cultivated chickpea. High narrow-sense heritability (ranging from 82% to 86% for F1 generations, and 43% to 63% for F2 generations) indicates that additive gene effects were more important than non-additive gene effects in the inheritance of the trait and greater genetic gain can be achieved in the breeding of resistant chickpea cultivars by using carefully selected parental genotypes.


Ascochyta rabiei Diallel analysis Field screening Genetic component Hayman procedure Inheritance 



We thank Dr Tanveer Khan, Mr Alan Harris and Mr Stuart Morgan for their expertise and assistance in field screening for disease. We thank Dr Fucheng Shan for providing wild Cicer germplasm and Miss Leila Eshraghi for technical support. We are grateful to Dr Pooran Guar for critical comments on the manuscript. This project was partially funded by Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran and CLIMA.


  1. Allard RW (1956) The analysis of genetic–environmental interactions by means of diallel crosses. Genetics 41:305–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Collard B, Ades PK, Pang ECK, Brouwer JB, Taylor PWJ (2001) Prospecting for sources of resistance to ascochyta blight in wild Cicer species. Australas Plant Path 30:271–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Collard BCY, Pang ECK, Ades PK, Taylor PWJ (2003a) Preliminary investigation of QTLs associated with seedling resistance to ascochyta blight from Cicer echinospermum, a wild relative of chickpea. Theor Appl Genet 107:719–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Collard BCY, Pang ECK, Taylor PWJ (2003b) Selection of wild Cicer accessions for the generation of mapping populations segregating for resistance to ascochyta blight. Euphytica 130:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Danehloueipour N, Yan G, Clarke HJ, Siddique KHM (2006) Successful stem cutting propagation of chickpea, its wild relatives and their interspecific hybrids. Aust J Exp Agric 46:1349–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dey SK, Singh G (1993) Resistance to ascochyta blight in chickpea—genetic basis. Euphytica 68:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. FAO (2005) FAOSTAT DATABASE, FAO, Rome. Cited 20 March 2006Google Scholar
  8. Flandez-Galves H, Ades PK, Ford R, Pang ECK, Taylor PWJ (2003) QTL analysis for ascochyta blight resistance in an intraspecific population of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Theor Appl Genet 107:1257–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gan YT, Siddique KHM, MacLeod WJ, Jayakumar P (2006) Management options for minimizing the damage by ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Field Crops Res 97:121–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayman BI (1954) The theory and analysis of diallel crosses. Genetics 39:789–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hayward MD (1979) The application of the diallel cross to outbreeding crop species. Euphytica 28:729–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jinks JL (1954) The analysis of continuous variation in a diallel cross of Nicotiana rustica varieties. Genetics 39:767–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Jinks JL (1956) The F2 and backcross generations from a set of diallel crosses. Heredity 10:1–30Google Scholar
  14. Kusmenoglu I (1990) Ascochyta blight of chickpea: inheritance and relationship to seed size, morphological traits and isozyme variation. MSc thesis, Washington State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  15. Ladizinsky G, Adler A (1976). The origin of chickpea Cicer arietinum L. Euphytica 25:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lichtenzveig J, Shtienberg D, Zhang HB, Bonfil DJ, Abbo S (2002) Biometric analyses of the inheritance of resistance to Didymella rabiei in chickpea. Phytopathology 92:417–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Mallikarjuna N (1999) Ovule and embryo culture to obtain hybrids from interspecific incompatible pollinations in chickpea. Euphytica 110:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mather K, Jinks JL (1982) Biometrical genetics. Methuen and Co Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Millan T, Rubio J, Iruela M, Daly K, Cubero JI, Gil J (2003) Markers associated with ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea and their potential in marker-assisted selection. Field Crops Res 84:373–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nene YL, Sheila VK (1992) Important disease problems of kabuli chickpea. In Singh KB, Saxena MC (eds) Disease resistance breeding in chickpea. ICARDA Aleppo, Syria, pp. 11–22Google Scholar
  21. Nguyen TT, Taylor PWJ, Redden RJ, Ford R (2005) Resistance to Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab. in a wild Cicer germplasm collection. Aust J Agric Res 45:1291–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pande S, Siddique KHM, Kishore GK, Bayaa B, Gaur PM, Gowda CLL, Bertag TW, Crouch JH (2005) Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): a review of biology pathogenicity, and disease management. Aust J Agric Res 56:317–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Reddy MV, Singh KB (1984) Evaluation of a world collection of chickpea germ plasm accessions for resistance to ascochyta blight. Plant Dis 68:900–901Google Scholar
  24. Santra DK, Tekeoglu M, Ratnaparkhe M, Kaiser WJ, Muehlbauer FJ (2000) Identification and mapping of QTLs conferring resistance to ascochyta blight in chickpea. Crop Sci 40:1606–1612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Siddique KHM, Regan KL, Baker MJ (2004) New ascochyta blight resistant, high quality kabuli chickpea varieties for Australia. In: New directions for a diverse planet: Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress. Brisbane, Australia, 26 Sep–1 Oct 2004Google Scholar
  26. Singh KB (1997) Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Field Crops Res 53:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Singh KB, Reddy MV (1983) Inheritance of resistance to ascochyta blight in chickpea. Crop Sci 23:9–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tekeoglu M, Santra DK, Kaiser WJ, Muehlbauer FJ (2000) Ascochyta blight resistance inheritance in three chickpea recombinant inbred line populations. Crop Sci 40:1251–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tewari SK, Pandey MP (1986) Genetics of resistance to ascochyta blight in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Euphytica 35:211–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Udupa SM, Baum M (2003) Genetic dissection of pathotype-specific resistance to ascochyta blight disease in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using microsatellite markers. Theor Appl Genet 106:1196–1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Vir S, Grewal JS, Gupta VP (1975) Inheritance of resistance to ascochyta blight in chickpea. Euphytica 24:209–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Danehloueipour
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • G. Yan
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. J. Clarke
    • 2
  • K. H. M. Siddique
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA), Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations