, Volume 154, Issue 1–2, pp 181–193 | Cite as

Variation in two PPO genes associated with polyphenol oxidase activity in seeds of common wheat

  • Cheng Chang
  • Hai-Ping Zhang
  • Jie Xu
  • Ming-Shan You
  • Bao-Yun LiEmail author
  • Guang-Tian Liu


Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is often regarded as a major factor resulting in time-dependent darkening and discoloration of Asian noodles and other wheat end products. To understand the relationship between variation of PPO genes and PPO activity of seed, the three PPO genes, which express in immature wheat grain, were investigated in 216 common wheat cultivars. The results indicated that only TaPPO-A1 and TaPPO-D1 showed high polymorphisms related to PPO activity. Two alleles in both TaPPO-A1 (TaPPO-A1a and TaPPO-A1b) and TaPPO-D1 (TaPPO-D1a and TaPPO-D1b) were detected using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Wheat cultivars with TaPPO-A1b usually showed higher PPO activity than those with TaPPO-A1a. The TaPPO-D1a allele was often found in lower-PPO-activity cultivars, compared with TaPPO-D1b. The sequencing results of DNA fragments confirmed that two introns existed in TaPPO-D1 like TaPPO-A1. Some variation of introns was detected in the two alleles of TaPPO-D1. During seed development, the high-PPO-activity cultivar, Yangmai 158 (TaPPO-A1b/TaPPO-D1b) showed higher transcription of the two PPO genes, in comparison to low-activity cultivar, Yongchuanbaimai (TaPPO-A1a/TaPPO-D1a). These results suggested that variation in introns may influence the transcription of TaPPO-A1 and TaPPO-D1 in immature seeds of wheat.


Common wheat PPO Variation Chromosome location Expression 



Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis


Quantitative trait loci


Reverse-transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction


Simple sequence repeat


Sequenced tagged site


Tris–boric acid–EDTA



We thank Dr. Shi-He Xiao (Institute of Crop Sciences in CAAS) and Prof. Zhi-Yong Liu (CAU) for kindly providing materials. We also thank Dr. Hong-Wei Cai (Forage Crop Research Institute, Japan Grassland Agriculture and Forage Seed Association) for helpful discussion on the manuscript. This work was supported by grants from the National Nature Foundation of China (Numbers 30270823 and 30471076).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheng Chang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hai-Ping Zhang
    • 3
  • Jie Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ming-Shan You
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bao-Yun Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Guang-Tian Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Genetic ImprovementMinistry of AgricultureBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Agronomy and BiotechnologyChina Agricultural University (CAU)BeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Institute of Crop Sciences National Wheat Improvement Centre, The National Key Facilities for Crop Genetic Resources and Improvement NFCRIChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)BeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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