Skip to main content

Genotypic variability in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L for foliage yield and its contributing traits over successive cuttings and years


Twenty nine strains of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor were grown for two successive seasons to study different selection parameters for foliage yield and its nine contributing morphological and quality traits. The strains AV-38 (5.06 kg/plot) and AV-31 (5.04 kg/plot) recorded highest foliage yield, followed by AV-30 (4.78 kg/plot) and AV-23 (4.70 kg/plot). The protein and carotenoid content averaged 1.24 ± 0.03 mg/100 mg and 0.83 ± 0.02 mg/g respectively. The leaves of A. tricolor also have considerable quantities of ascorbic acid (112.33 ± 5.00 mg/100 g) and fibre (8.39 ± 0.10%). The mean of individual cuttings for plant height, leaf size, stem diameter, foliage yield, protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content increased with successive cuttings till third cutting and thereafter showed a decline. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) values ranged from 6.80 to 28.25%. However, the fibre content, branches/plant, leaves/plant, plant height and stem diameter showed lowest values of GCV. The values of heritability estimates were high for all the traits in all the cuttings as well as on pooled basis and ranged from 0.89 for branches/plant to 0.98 for foliage yield. Highest expected genetic advance was noticed for ascorbic acid (57.48%), followed by foliage yield (48.30%) and leaf size (29.51%).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Baye, T. & H.C. Becker, 2005. Genetic variability and interrelationship of traits in the industrial oil crop Vernonia galamensis. Euphytica 142: 119–129.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bhargava, A., S. Shukla & D. Ohri, 2003a. Genetic variability and heritability of selected traits during different cuttings of vegetable Chenopodium. Ind J Genet Pl Breed 63: 359–360.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bhargava, A., S. Shukla, R.S. Katiyar & D. Ohri, 2003b. Selection parameters for genetic improvement in Chenopodium grain on sodic soil. J Applied Hort 5(1): 45–48.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bhargava, A., S. Shukla, B.S. Dixit, R. Bannerji & D. Ohri, 2006. Variability and genotype x cutting interactions for different nutritional components in C. album L. Horticultural Science 33(1): 29–38.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Glick, D., 1954. Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Vol. 1, Interscience Publishers Inc., New York, pp. 127–132.

  6. Jensen, A., 1978. Chlorophylls and carotenoids. In: J.A. Hellebust and J.S. Craigie (Eds.), Handbook of Physiological Methods: Physiological and Biochemical Methods, pp. 5–70. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Johnson, H.W., H.F. Robinson & R.E. Comstock, 1955. Estimates of genetic and environmental variability in Soybean. Agron J 47: 314–318.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Katiyar, R.S., S. Shukla & S. Rai, 2000. Varietal performance of grain amaranth (A. hypochondriacus) on sodic soil. Proc Nat Acad Sci (India). 70: 185–187.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Lowry, O.H., N.J. Rosebrough, A.L. Farr & R.J. Randall, 1951. Protein measurement with the folin–phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193: 265–275.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. National Research Council (NRC), 1984. Amaranth: Modern prospects for an ancient crop. National Academic Press, Washington D.C.

  11. Panse, V.G. & P.V. Sukhatme, 1978. Statistical methods for agricultural workers. ICAR, New Delhi.

  12. Prakash, D. & M. Pal, 1991. Nutritional and anti nutritional composition of vegetable and grain amaranth leaves. J Sci Food Agric 57: 573–583.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Prakash, D., P. Nath & M. Pal, 1993. Composition, variation of nutritional contents in leaves, seed protein, fat and fatty acid profile of Chenopodium species. J Sci Food Agric 62:203–205.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Rastogi, K.B., B.N. Korla, A.K. Joshi & M.C. Thakur, 1995. Variability studies in Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.). Adv in Hort Forestry 4: 101–107.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Revanappa, & B.B. Madalageri, 1998. Genetic variability studies regarding quantitative traits in amaranthus. Karnataka J Agric Sci 11: 139–142.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Robinson, H.F., R.E. Comstock & P.H. Harvey, 1949. Estimates of heritability and the degree of dominance in corn. Agron J 41: 353–359.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Shukla, S. & S.P. Singh, 2000. Studies on genetic parameters in vegetable amaranth. J Genet Breed 54: 133–135.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Shukla, S., A. Bhargava, A. Chatterjee & S.P. Singh, 2004a. Estimates of genetic parameters to determine variability for foliage yield and its different quantitative and qualitative traits in vegetable amaranth (A. tricolor). J Genet Breed 58: 169–176.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Shukla, S., A. Bhargava, A. Chatterjee & S.P. Singh, 2004b. Interrelationship among foliage yield and its contributing traits in vegetable amaranth (A. tricolor). Progressive Hort 36: 299–305.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Shukla, S., V. Pandey, G. Pachauri, B.S. Dixit, R. Banerji & S.P. Singh, 2003. Nutritional contents of different foliage cuttings of vegetable amaranth. Plant Food Hum Nutr 58: 1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Singh, B.P. & W.F. Whitehead, 1996. Management methods for producing vegetable amaranth. In: J. Janick (Ed.), pp. 511–515. Progress in New Crops, ASHS Press, Arlington, VA.

  22. Tucker, J.B., 1986. Amaranth: The once and future crop. Bioscience 36: 9–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Watson, C.A., 1994. Official and standardized methods of analysis. Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Cambridge CB4 4WF.

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Shukla.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shukla, S., Bhargava, A., Chatterjee, A. et al. Genotypic variability in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L for foliage yield and its contributing traits over successive cuttings and years. Euphytica 151, 103–110 (2006).

Download citation


  • A. tricolor
  • foliage yield
  • protein
  • heritability
  • genetic advance
  • selection