This article evaluates the relationship between the timing of marriage and the purchase of a jointly owned home among Swedish cohabiting couples. Data for this analysis come from the Swedish Housing and Life Course Cohort Study (N = 1,596 couples; 2,006 cohabiting spells). The author develops models to proxy for simultaneity and intentions and test hypotheses about positive and negative and long- and short-run relationships between the two life-course events. The author uses a novel modeling approach, allowing for differences in the risk before, concurrently and after the conditioning event. Results indicate a positive relationship between marriage and joint home purchase and suggest the possibility of an ordering of events: For some couples, formalizing their union through marriage may be a prerequisite for a joint home purchase.
Cet article étudie la relation entre le calendrier du mariage et l’achat conjoint d’un logement chez les couples suédois cohabitants à partir des données de l’étude de cohorte suédoise sur les ménages et les parcours de vie (N = 1 596 couples; 2 006 périodes de cohabitation). L’auteur développe des modèles pour appréhender la simultanéité et les intentions et pour tester des hypothèses relatives aux relations positives/négatives, court-terme/long-terme entre les deux événements. Une approche nouvelle permet de tenir compte des différences de risque avant, pendant et après l’événement conditionnant. Les résultats indiquent une relation positive entre le mariage et l’achat conjoint d’un logement et la possibilité d’un ordre chronologique dans la survenue des événements : pour certains couples, formaliser leur union par un mariage peut être une condition préalable à l’achat conjoint d’un logement.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
See Appendix 1 for marriage rates of cohabiting and non-cohabiting couples in the HOLK data.
Interacting tenure and contract holder variables did not change the pattern of association, nor did it improve model fit.
These models predict joint home purchase. Therefore, the independent variable on ownership characterizes only those homes that are owned by the man or the woman; similarly, jointness characterizes only rental (first- or second-hand) properties.
I present only results from the full model; results from intermediate models available on request.
I present only results from the full model; results from intermediate models available on request.
Andersson, G. (2008). Family forerunners? Family dynamics in the Nordic countries versus Europe. Nordic Demographic Symposium. Helsinki, Finland.
Andersson, G., & Philipov, D. (2002). Life-table representations of family dynamics in Sweden, Hungary, and 14 other FFS countries: A project of descriptions of demographic behavior. Demographic Research, 7(4), 67–144.
Becker, G. S. (1991). A treatise on the family. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Bernhardt, E. (2002). Cohabitation and marriage among young adults in Sweden: Attitudes, expectations and plans. Scandinavian Population Studies, 13, 157–170.
Bernhardt, E. (2004). Cohabitation or marriage? Preferred living arrangements in Sweden. Austrian Institute for Family Studies publication.
Billari, F. C., Philipov, D., & Baizán, P. (2001). Leaving home in Europe: The experience of cohorts born around 1960. International Journal of Population Geography, 7(5), 339–356.
Blossfeld, H.-P., Golsch, K., & Rohwer, G. (2006). Event history analysis with Stata. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
Bøe, S. (2010). Sambos med barn bör gifta sig [Cohabitors with children should marry]. Stockholm: Dagens Nyheter.
Bracher, M., Santow, G., Morgan, S. P., & Trussell, J. (1993). Marriage dissolution in Australia: Models and explanations. Population Studies: A Journal of Demography, 47(3), 403–425.
Cherlin, A. J. (2004). The deinstitutionalization of American marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(4), 848–861.
Cox, D. R. (1972). Regression models and life-tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 34(2), 187–220.
Dagens Nyheter. (2010). De flesta sparar till bröllopet [Most save for the wedding]. Stockholm: Dagens Nyheter.
Duvander, A.-Z. E. (1999). The transition from cohabitation to marriage: A longitudinal study of the propensity to marry in Sweden in the early 1990s. Journal of Family Issues, 20(5), 698–717.
Edin, K., & Kefalas, M. (2005). Promises I can keep: Why poor women put motherhood before marriage. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Feijten, P., & Mulder, C. H. (2002). The timing of household events and housing events in the Netherlands: A longitudinal perspective. Housing Studies, 17(5), 773–792.
Feijten, P., & Van Ham, M. (2010). The impact of splitting up and divorce on housing careers in the UK. Housing Studies, 25(4), 483–507.
Gibson-Davis, C. M., Edin, K., & McLanahan, S. (2005). High hopes but even higher expectations: The retreat from marriage among low-income couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(5), 1301–1312.
Goldstein, J. R., & Kenney, C. T. (2001). Marriage delayed or marriage forgone? New cohort forecasts of first marriage for U.S. women. American Sociological Review, 66(4), 506–519.
Heuveline, P., & Timberlake, J. M. (2004). The role of cohabitation in family formation: The United States in comparative perspective. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(5), 1214–1230.
Hiscock, R., Kearns, A., MacIntyre, S., & Ellaway, A. (2001). Ontological security and psycho-social benefits from the home: Qualitative evidence on issues of tenure. Housing Theory and Society, 18(1–2), 50–66.
Hoem, J. M., & Kreyenfeld, M. (2006a). Anticipatory analysis and its alternatives in life-course research: Part 1: Education and first childbearing. Demographic Research, 15(16), 461–484.
Hoem, J. M., & Kreyenfeld, M. (2006b). Anticipatory analysis and its alternatives in life-course research: Part 2: Marriage and first birth. Demographic Research, 15(17), 485–498.
Kiernan, K. (2001). The rise of cohabitation and childbearing outside marriage in western Europe. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 15(1), 1–21.
Kulu, H., & Vikat, A. (2007). Fertility differences by housing type: The effect of housing conditions or of selective moves? Demographic Research, 17(26), 775–802.
Lauster, N. T. (2008). Better homes and families: Housing markets and young couple stability in Sweden. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(4), 891–903.
Lauster, N. T., & Fransson, U. (2006). Of marriages and mortgages: The second demographic transition and the relationship between marriage and homeownership in Sweden. Housing Studies, 21(6), 909–927.
Lesthaeghe, R. J., & van de Kaa, D. J. (1986). Twee demografishe transities? (two demographic transitions?). In R. J. Lesthaeghe, & D. J. v. d. Kaa (Eds.), Bevolking: Groei en Krimp (Population: Growth and decline) (pp. 9–24). Deventer: Van Loghum Slaterus.
Malmberg, B. (2010). Low fertility and the housing market: Evidence from Swedish regional data. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 26(2), 229–244.
Mandic, S. (2007). Entry to autonomous housing as an outcome of housing policy: A comparative analysis among groups of EU member states. Dublin: ENHR Comparative Housing Policy Working Group Workshop.
Megbolugbe, I. F., & Linneman, P. D. (1993). Home ownership. Urban Studies, 30(4–5), 659–682.
Michielin, F., & Mulder, C. H. (2008). Family events and the residential mobility of couples. Environment and Planning A, 40(11), 2770–2790.
Morgan, S. P., & King, R. B. (2001). Why have children in the 21st century? Biological predisposition, social coercion, rational choice. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 17(1), 3–20.
Mulder, C. H. (2006). Home-ownership and family formation. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 21(3), 281–298.
Mulder, C. H., & Billari, F. C. (2010). Homeownership regimes and low fertility. Housing Studies, 25(4), 527–541.
Mulder, C. H., & Lauster, N. T. (2010). Housing and family: An introduction. Housing Studies, 25(4), 433–440.
Mulder, C. H., & Wagner, M. (1998). First-time home-ownership in the family life course: A West German-Dutch comparison. Urban Studies, 35(4), 687–713.
Mulder, C. H., & Wagner, M. (2001). The connections between family formation and first-time home ownership in the context of West Germany and the Netherlands. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 17(2), 137–164.
Myrdal, A., & Myrdal, G. (1935). Kris i Befolkningsfrågan [Crisis in the population question]. Stockholm: A. Bonnier.
Noack, T., Bernhardt, E., Wiik, K. A., & Lyngstad, T. H. (2011). The realization of marriage plans among cohabiting couples in Scandinavia. In Population association of America annual meetings. Washington, DC: Population Association of America.
Ohlsson-Wijk, S. (2011). Sweden’s marriage revival: An analysis of the new-millennium switch from long-term decline to increasing popularity. Population Studies: A Journal of Demography, 65(2), 183–200.
Scanlon, K., & Whitehead, C. (2004). International trends in housing tenure and mortgage finance. London: Council of Mortgage Lenders.
Smits, A., & Mulder, C. H. (2008). Family dynamics and first-time homeownership. Housing Studies, 23(6), 917–933.
Smock, P. J., Manning, W. D., & Porter, M. (2005). Everything’s there except money: how money shapes decisions to marry among cohabitors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(3), 680–696.
Sobotka, T., & Toulemon, L. (2008). Overview chapter 4: Changing family and partnership behaviour: Common trends and persistent diversity across Europe. Demographic Research, 19(6), 85–138.
Statistics Sweden. (2008). Leaving home. Stockholm: Statistics Sweden.
Statistics Sweden. (2010). Real estate prices up to and including August 2010: Average price more than SEK 2 million. Press release. Statistics Sweden. Retrieved September 29, 2010, from http://www.scb.se/Pages/PressRelease____300300.aspx.
Ström, S. (2010). Housing and first births in Sweden, 1972–2005. Housing Studies, 25(4), 509–526.
Ström, S., & Brandén, M. (2006). HOLK–The codebook. Stockholm: Institute for Future Studies.
Ström, S., Brandén, M., & Thomson, E. (2008). Self-reported retrospective housing biographies: A modified life history calendar approach. In Population association of America annual meetings. New Orleans, LA: Population Association of America.
Sweeney, M. M. (2002). Two decades of family change: The shifting economic foundations of marriage. American Sociological Review, 67(1), 132–147.
Tucker, M. B. (2000). Marital values and expectations in context: Results from a 21-city survey. In L. J. Waite (Ed.), The ties that bind: Perspectives on marriage and cohabitation (pp. 166–187). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Thornton, A., & Philipov, D. (2009). Sweeping changes in marriage, cohabitation and childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New insights from the developmental idealism framework. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 25(2), 123–156.
Upchurch, D. M., Lillard, L. A., & Panis, C. W. A. (2002). Nonmarital childbearing: Influences of education, marriage, and fertility. Demography, 39(2), 311–329.
Waaldijk, K. (Ed.). (2005). More or less together: Levels of legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners. Paris: Institut National d’Etudes Démographiques.
Wiik, K. A., Bernhardt, E., & Noack, T. (2010). Love or money? Acta Sociologica, 53(3), 269–287.
Ytterberg, H., & Waaldijk, K. (2005). Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in Sweden. In K. Waaldijk (Ed.), More or less together: Levels of legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners (pp. 169–186). Paris: Institut National d’Etudes Démographiques.
Earlier versions of the article and some analyses have been presented and benefited from discussions at meetings of the European Association of Population Studies (2010) and the Population Association of America (2010), the Nordic Demographic Symposium (2010), European Science Foundation Quantitative Methods in the Social Sciences (2) Advances in Family and Fertility Research Workshop (2009), the University of Wisconsin–Madison Center for Demography and Ecology, the Stockholm University Demography Unit and Linnaeus Center for Social Policy and Family Dynamics in Europe and the Research Department of Statistics Norway. I thank Elizabeth Thomson, Gunnar Andersson, Clara Mulder, Jan Hoem and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. Support for the research was provided by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program and the University of Wisconsin–Madison’s Center for Demography and Ecology (Center Grant R24 HD047873). I also thank Sara Ström and the Swedish Institute for Futures Studies for access to and documentation of the Swedish Life Course and Cohort Study.
About this article
Cite this article
Holland, J.A. Home and Where the Heart Is: Marriage Timing and Joint Home Purchase. Eur J Population 28, 65–89 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10680-011-9242-1