Stakeholder Tokens: a constructive method for value sensitive design stakeholder analysis


A robust stakeholder analysis requires extensive conceptual and empirical work. Yet it is often unclear how to effectively do so. This paper introduces a new method—the Stakeholder Tokens—for designers to elicit a more inclusive set of stakeholders and gain better understanding of stakeholder interrelationships and dynamics. Stakeholder Tokens present a playful hands-on design approach to support value sensitive design stakeholder analyses by employing a style of role play.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. Bardzell, J., & Bardzell, S. (2015). The user reconfigured: On subjectivities of information. In Proceedings of The Fifth Decennial Aarhus Conference on Critical Alternatives (pp. 133–144).

  2. Bjerknes, G., Ehn, P., Kyng, M., & Nygaard, K. (1987). Computers and Democracy: A Scandinavian Challenge. Aldershot: Gower Pub Co.

  3. Cantoni, L., Botturi, L., Faré, M., & Bolchini, D. (2009). Playful holistic support to HCI requirements using LEGO bricks. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Human Centered Design (pp. 844–853).

  4. Card, S. K., Moran, T. P., & Newell, A. (1983). The Psychology of HumanComputer Interaction. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Czeskis, A., Dermendjieva, I., Yapit, H., Borning, B., Friedman, B., Gill, B., & Kohno, T. (2010). Parenting from the pocket: Value tensions and technical directions for secure and private parent–teen mobile safety. In Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS ‘16), Article No. 15.

  6. DiSalvo, C. (2012). Adversarial Design. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Friedman, B., & Hendry, D. (in press). Value Sensitive Design: Shaping Technology with Moral Imagination. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

  8. Friedman, B., Kahn, P. H., & Borning, A. (2006). Value sensitive design and information systems. In P. Zhang & Galletta, F. (Eds.), Humancomputer Interaction in Management Information Systems: Foundations. M.E. Sharpe, Inc., (pp. 348–372).

  9. Gaver, B. (2009). Designing for homo ludens, still. In (Re)searching the Digital Bauhaus (pp. 163–178).

  10. Jenkins, T., Le Dantec, C. A., DiSalvo, C., Lodato, T., & Asad, M. (2016). Object-oriented publics. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ‘16), (pp. 827–839).

  11. Miller, J. K., Friedman, B., Jancke, G., & Gill, B. (2007). Value tensions in design: the value sensitive design, development, and appropriation of a corporation’s groupware system. In Proceedings of the 2007 international ACM conference on Supporting group work (GROUP ‘07), (pp. 281–290).

  12. Olivier, P., & Wright, P. (2015). Digital civics: taking a local turn. Interactions, 22(4), 61–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Rector, K., Milne, L., Ladner, R. E., Friedman, B., & Kientz, J. A. (2015). Exploring the opportunities and challenges with exercise technologies for people who are blind or low-vision. In Proceedings of the 17th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers & Accessibility (ASSETS ‘15) (pp. 203–214).

  14. Stark, H., Dudzinski, D., & White, N. (2013). Physician aid-in-dying. Retrieved January 2017 from:

  15. Winograd, T., & Flores, F. (1986). Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design. Intellect Books.

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daisy Yoo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yoo, D. Stakeholder Tokens: a constructive method for value sensitive design stakeholder analysis. Ethics Inf Technol (2018).

Download citation


  • Aid-in-dying
  • Creative toolkits
  • Publics
  • Stakeholders
  • Stakeholder analysis
  • Value sensitive design