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Table 1 Models of democracy and design criteria

From: Breaking the filter bubble: democracy and design

Model of democracy Norms Criticism of the filter bubble
Liberal Awareness of available preferences
Self-determination
Autonomy
Adaptive preferences
Free media
Respect human dignity
User is unaware of the availability of options
User is restrained and individual liberty is curtailed
The media is not free, it serves the interests of certain parties (e.g. advertisers)
Powers are not separated (advertiser and the information provider are the same)
Deliberative Discover facts, perspectives and disagreements
Determine common interests
Construct identity by self-discovery
Refine arguments and provide better epistemic justifications
Consensus
Respect towards each other’s opinions
A collective spirit
Free and equal participants
Rationality
Epistemic quality of information suffers
Civic discourse is undermined
No need to have better epistemic justifications
Respect for other opinions is decreased
Legitimacy is more difficult to achieve. There is a loss of a sense of an informational commons
Communication suffers as gaining mutual understanding and sense-making is undermined
Republican and contestatory Freedom from domination by oppressors
Contest matters effectively
Be aware of the oppressors
Diminishes one’s ability to contest
Diminishes one’s awareness of the oppressors and their potentially manipulative interventions
Agonistic/inclusive political communication Conflict rather than consensus
Passions rather than rationality
Struggle rather than agreement
Inclusion: Measures must be taken to explicitly include the representation of social groups, relatively small minorities, or socially or economically disadvantaged ones
Measures must be taken so that antagonism is transformed into agonism
The adversary becomes the enemy
The minorities are excluded from the democratic process, their voices are lost