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The Effect of Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Human Resources on Employee Engagement with the Moderating Role of the Employer Brand

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Employee Engagement (EE) is an important aspect of human resources management, which is instrumental in the financial success of an organization. While an internal aspect, EE is also influenced by organizational factors. As a descriptive study, the present paper examines the direct and indirect effects of Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility (PCSR) and Perceived Sustainable Human Resource Management (PSHRM) on EE through the Employer Brand (EB) as the mediating variable. A survey of 252 official employees in an Iranian oil company, using the PLS method, constitute the basis for the conceptual model analysis. The results of the study confirmed the overall direct and indirect effects of PCSR and PSHRM on EE through the EB.

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Correspondence to Alireza Moghaddam.

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All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Appendix 1

Measurement: (5 point scales assessing the degree of agreement or disagreement, where 5: strongly agree and 1: strongly disagree).

Variable: Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility.

PCSR1: Obligation to customers.

  1. 1.

    My company considers both customer satisfaction and his/her long-term benefits in its plans and actions.

  2. 2.

    My company has enough disclosure about its products and services to customers.

  3. 3.

    My company respects customer rights meanwhile attention to other stakeholders’ rights.

  4. 4.

    My company tries to implement local and international standards in its production.

PCSR2: Obligation to social programs and natural environment.

  1. 5.

    My company participates in activities which aim to protect and improve the natural environment.

  2. 6.

    My company takes part in altruistic activities and encourages its employees to participate in such activities.

  3. 7.

    My company tries to minimize its unfavorable and damaging effects on the natural environment.

  4. 8.

    My company supports social welfare programs and creation of employment opportunities.

PCSR3: Obligation to laws and regulations.

  1. 9.

    My firm tries to act on the basis of local and global legal regulations.

  2. 10.

    Complying with legal regulations in every situation is an underlying purpose of my company.

  3. 11.

    My company always pays its taxes and other duties regularly and completely.

PCSR4: Obligation to society.

  1. 12.

    My company cooperates with other private and public entities in social responsibility projects.

  2. 13.

    My company emphasizes the importance of its social responsibilities to the society.

  3. 14.

    My company targets sustainable development and creation of a better life for future generations.

  4. 15.

    My company seeking opportunities to define projects that are beneficial both for the organization and society.

Appendix 2

Variable: Employer Brand.

EB1: Work-Life Balance.

  1. 16.

    I work more than the set hours in the company.

  2. 17.

    I use the sports facilities.

  3. 18.

    I am constantly thinking or worried about work, when I'm not working.

  4. 19.

    Because of my work, I miss the time I can spend with my family and friends.

  5. 20.

    I am actively involved in social, religious and cultural activities.

EB2: Company Culture and Environment.

  1. 21.

    The quality of the relationship between senior management and staff is good.

  2. 22.

    My company has a good reputation in the community.

  3. 23.

    My company has a high level of technology-work challenge.

  4. 24.

    My job-related activities involve a good amount of challenge.

  5. 25.

    My company is a large organization.

  6. 26.

    The roles in my company have a high level of transparency.

EB3: Product/Company Brand Strength.

  1. 27.

    The company's products have a wide appeal.

  2. 28.

    The company's services have a wide appeal.

  3. 29.

    People prefer to work in my company than in other companies.

EB4: compensation and benefits.

  1. 30.

    I receive a sufficient salary (Base pay).

  2. 31.

    My salary is almost equal to that of the others in the company (Internal equity).

  3. 32.

    My salary is almost equal to that of the others in similar companies (External equity).

  4. 33.

    We receive good benefits in addition to our salaries (Perks and bonuses).

  5. 34.

    We have good retirement plans.

  6. 35.

    Our company provides us with good healthcare plans.

Appendix 3

Variable: Employee Engagement.

Measurement: (5 point scales assessing the degree of agreement or disagreement, where 5: strongly agree and 1: strongly disagree).

EE1: Vigor.

  1. 50.

    At my work, I feel bursting with energy.

  2. 51.

    At my job, I feel strong and vigorous.

  3. 52.

    When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to work.

EE2: Dedication.

  1. 53.

    I am enthusiastic about my job.

  2. 54.

    My job inspires me.

  3. 55.

    I am proud on the work that I do.

EE3: Absorption.

  1. 56.

    I feel happy when I am working intensely.

  2. 57.

    I am immersed in my work.

  3. 58.

    I get carried away when I’m working.

Appendix 4

Variable: Perceived Sustainable Human Resource Management.

PSHRM 1: Competence Development.

  1. 36.

    Employees in this company are provided with clear career paths

  2. 37.

    The company provides opportunities for individual development other than formal training (e.g., work assignments and job rotation).

  3. 38.

    The company encourages employees to attend formal developmental activities Extensive training programs.

  4. 39.

    Extensive training programs are provided for individuals in our organization.

PSHRM 2: Employee Relations.

  1. 40.

    We treat our employees as the most valuable resources within our company.

  2. 41.

    Our company emphasizes the importance of having satisfied employees.

  3. 42.

    The hotel seeks to maintain a high level of employee motivation.

  4. 43.

    Employees receive effective feedback on their performance.

PSHRM 3: Employability.

  1. 44.

    I adjust my behavior to the work environment.

  2. 45.

    Our staff possess the ability to think in ways that provide economic value to our products and services.

PSHRM 4: Personal Responsibility.

  1. 46.

    I am responsive to the implications of my performance in the work environment.

  2. 47.

    I aware of the effect of my behavior to other staffs.

  3. 48.

    I emphasize the effect of my behavior to other staffs.

  4. 49.

    I always feel, tired and depressed.

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Hosseini, S.A., Moghaddam, A., Damganian, H. et al. The Effect of Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Human Resources on Employee Engagement with the Moderating Role of the Employer Brand. Employ Respons Rights J 34, 101–121 (2022).

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