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Workplace Bullying Model: a Qualitative Study on Bullying in Hospitals

Abstract

We used qualitative research to investigate workplace bullying. We assessed and identified what individual, hierarchical, and organizational issues led to bullying behaviors. Also examined and identified was how bullying behaviors affected individuals and the organization and how individuals reacted to bullying. Lastly, tactics used in response to bullying behaviors were also examined and identified. We present a grounded theory model of workplace bullying.

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Correspondence to Barbara A. Wech.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee of the University of Alabama at Birmingham Institutional Review Board, protocol number ×100427018, and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Appendix 1

Appendix 1

Interview protocol

Can you please indicate your gender, age, race, unit, whether or not you’re licensed, in what shift?

What are the different aggressive, violent and bullying behaviors you have witnessed or experienced in the workplace in your professional years? Workplace bullying refers to repeated, unreasonable actions of individuals directed towards an employee, which is intended to intimidate and creates a risk to the health and safety of the employee. List all types of behaviors that are disruptive.

What are the different sources of aggressive, violent and bullying behaviors in the workplace, meaning what people, like doctors/licensed nurses/ non-licensed staff/ staff/other disciplines such as Environment Services, Physical Therapy, Dietitian Services?

Which aggressive behaviors have you seen associated with doctors/licensed nurses/ non-licensed staff/ staff/other disciplines such as Environment Services, Physical Therapy, Dietitian Services?

How do aggressive, violent and bullying behavior affect the workplace?

How do aggressive, violent and bullying behavior affect you?

Does it influence your consideration; missing work or quitting?

Does it influence your personal behavior, attitudes or moods?

Does it influence your thoughts about leaving the profession?

Does it make you feel the workplace is unsafe?

How does it affect the service you provide?

How do you think it affects patient care?

How does it affect organizational performance?

How do you react when someone exhibits aggressive, violent or bullying behaviors towards you at work?

What tactics do you use when interacting with doctors/licensed nurses/ non-licensed staff/ staff/other disciplines such as Environment Services, Physical Therapy, Dietitian Services when they get aggressive?

What specific tactics do you find most effective when dealing with doctors/licensed nurses/ non-licensed staff/ staff/other disciplines such as Environment Services, Physical Therapy, Dietitian Services when they become aggressive, violent or demonstrate bullying? Why do you find that effective?

What is the situation, or what are the situations that cause doctors/licensed nurses/ non-licensed staff/ staff/other disciplines such as Environment Services, Physical Therapy, Dietitian Services to exhibit aggressive, violent or bullying behaviors?

Is there anything that would differentiate those groups as to what might cause them to exhibit aggressive, violent or bullying behaviors?

What do you think are some of the specific reasons why doctors/licensed nurses/ non-licensed staff/ staff/other disciplines such as Environment Services, Physical Therapy, Dietitian Services exhibit aggressive, violent or bullying behaviors?

Does gender influence aggressive, violent, or bullying behaviors?

Do you think cultural issues contribute to violent, aggressive, or bullying behavior?

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Wech, B.A., Howard, J. & Autrey, P. Workplace Bullying Model: a Qualitative Study on Bullying in Hospitals. Employ Respons Rights J 32, 73–96 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10672-020-09345-z

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Keywords

  • Bullying
  • Healthcare
  • Qualitative
  • Model