Machismo in Organizations: Individual Predictors & Context-Dependent Outcomes

  • Melissa L. Intindola
  • Ryan P. Jacobson
  • Kathryn J. L. Jacobson
  • Robert G. DelCampo


Two studies were conducted to examine possible predictors of machismo value endorsement and to test the possibility that machismo’s effects on job-related outcomes may be stronger in “family-oriented” than in “team-oriented” organizations. A total of 178 students were recruited from upper-level management and MBA classes at a large university in the Southwestern U.S. In Study 1, participant gender, familism values, and femininity predicted machismo values. Unexpectedly, ethnicity did not predict machismo values. Study 2 replicated results for predictors of machismo values, except that femininity did not emerge as a significant predictor. Additionally, Study 2 results indicated that machismo’s effects were dependent on the extent to which the company was viewed as family-oriented. Results suggest that machismo values: (a) may be relevant for both Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, (b) are related, yet somewhat distinct from theoretically related variables like gender role endorsement and familism, and (c) are especially likely to affect expectations and behaviors when the organization’s culture includes elements (e.g., family orientation) that evoke a connection to those values. One of the most prominent recent demographic trends to emerge in the U.S. workforce is the rapid increase in workers of Hispanic descent. Organizations should expect an accompanying wave of employee values, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral expectations influenced by aspects of Hispanic culture. Further, it would be of considerable applied value to identify ways to strategically harness positive effects of machismo values while mitigating potentially negative effects.


Machismo Organizational Culture Values Person Perception Job Satisfaction 


  1. Ainsworth, S., & Cox, J. W. (2003). Families divided: culture and control in small family business. Organization Studies, 24, 463–1485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arciniega, G. M., Anderson, T. C., Tovar-Blank, Z. G., & Tracey, T. J. (2008). Toward a fuller conception of Machismo: Development of a traditional Machismo and Caballerismo Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(1), 19–33.Google Scholar
  3. Arthur, W., Bell, S. T., Villado, A. J., & Doverspike, D. (2006). The use of person-organization fit in employment decision-making: an assessment of its criterion-related validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 786–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bacigalupe, G. (2006). Machismo. In Y. Jackson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology (pp. 291–292). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  5. Benet-Martínez, V., Leu, J., Lee, F., & Morris, M. W. (2002). Negotiating biculturalism: cultural frame switching in biculturals with oppositional versus compatible cultural identities. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 492–516.Google Scholar
  6. Bilmes, M. (1992). Macho and shame. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 1, 63–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Booth-Kewley, S., Rosenfeld, P., & Edwards, J. E. (1993). “Turnover among Hispanic and non-Hispanic blue-collar workers in the U.S. Navy’s civilian work force”. journal of social psychology. Volucella, 133, 761–768.Google Scholar
  8. Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2006). “’We are family’ congruity between organizational and family functioning constructs”. human relations. Volucella, 59, 141–161.Google Scholar
  9. Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2005). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: based on the competing values framework. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  10. Casey, C. (1999). Come, join our family: discipline and integration in corporate organizational culture. Human Relations, 52, 155–178.Google Scholar
  11. Chiu, C., Morris, M., Hong, Y., & Menon, T. (2000). Motivated cultural cognition: the impact of implicit cultural theories on dispositional attribution varies as a function of need for closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 247–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen, D., Nisbett, R. E., Bowdle, B. F., & Schwarz, N. (1996). “Insult, Aggression, and the Southern Culture of Honor: An Experimental Ethnography”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,, 70, 945–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cuéllar, I., Arnold, B. & González, G. (1995). Cognitive referents of acculturation: assessment of cultural constructs in Mexican Americans. Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 339–356.Google Scholar
  14. De Massis, A., & Kotlar, J. (2014). “Learning resources for family business education: A review and directions for future developments”. The Academy of Management Learning and Education, amle-2014.Google Scholar
  15. De Waal, T. (2013). “Suspects’ culture of migration and machismo,” CNN Opinion. N.p., April 21, 2013. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
  16. Drash, W. (2010). “Hummer, symbol of machismo, may be headed to graveyard,” CNN Living. N.p., March 3, 2010. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
  17. Edwards, J. R., Cable, D. M., Williamson, I. O., Lambert, L. S., & Shipp, A. J. (2006). The phenomenology of fit: linking the person and the environment to the subjective experience of person-environment fit. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 802–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Galanti, G. (2003). The Hispanic family and male-female relationships: an overview. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 14, 80–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hayes, A. F., & Matthes, J. (2009). Computational procedures for probing interactions in OLS and logistic regression: SPSS and SAS implementations. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 924–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hong, Y., Benet-Martínez, V., Chiu, C., & Morris, M. W. (2003). Boundaries of cultural influence: construct activation as a mechanism for cultural differences in social perception. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 453–464.Google Scholar
  21. Ingoldsby, B. B. (1991). The Latin American family: familism vs. machismo. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 57–62.Google Scholar
  22. Jacobson, K. J. L., & Jacobson, R. P. (2011). The effects of machismo values on organizational outcomes among Hispanic professionals: a research agenda. In D. M. Blancero, & R. G. DelCampo (Eds.), Hispanics at work: A collection of research, theory, and application. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Johns, G. (2006). The essential impact of context on organizational behavior. Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 386–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson S.C. and Son, Inc. (2014), “Family from SC Johnson: family stories, family economics, Fisk on family, more”, SC Johnson homepage. N.p., N.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2014.
  25. Johnson and Johnson Services, Inc. (2012). ‘About Johnson & Johnson’.
  26. Knight, G. P., Gonzales, N. A., Saenz, D. S., Bonds, D. D., Germán, M., Deardorff, J., et al. (2010). The Mexican American cultural values scale for adolescents and adults. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30, 444–481.Google Scholar
  27. Knouse, S. B., Rosenfeld, P., & Culbertson, A. L. (1992). Hispanics in the workplace. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., & Hurdle, D. (2003). “Gender identity, Ethnicity, acculturation, and Drug use: Exploring Differences Among Adolescents in the Southwest”. Journal of Community Psychology,, 31, 167–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H. L., & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological bulletin, 114(3), 395–412.Google Scholar
  30. Lashinsky, A. (2012), “Larry Page: Google should be like a family”. Fortune, 165, N.p., 2012. Web. 27 Jan. 2014.
  31. Lehman, D. R., Chiu, C. Y., & Schaller, M. (2004). Psychology and culture. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 689–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Long, V. O., & Martinez, E. A. (1997). “Masculinity. Femininity, and Hispanic Professional men’s Self-Esteem and Self-Acceptance”. Journal of Psychology, 131, 481–488.Google Scholar
  33. Mayo, Y. Q., & Resnick, R. P. (1996). The impact of machismo in Hispanic women. Journal of Women and Social Work, 11, 257–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Melhuus, M. (1996). Power, value and the ambiguous meanings of gender. In M. Melhuus, & K. A. Stolen (Eds.), Machos, mistresses, Madonna (pp. 230–259). Verso: Contesting Power of Latin American Gender Imagery, London.Google Scholar
  35. Neff, J. A. (2001). “A confirmatory factor analysis of a measure of ‘machismo’ among Anglo, African American, and Mexican American Male drinkers”. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 23, 171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Osland, J. S., De Franco, S., & Osland, A. (1999). Organizational implications of Latin American culture: lessons for the expatriate manager. Journal of Management Inquiry, 8, 219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ostroff, C., Kinicki, A. J., & Clark, M. A. (2002). Substantive and operational issues of response bias across levels of analysis: an example of climate-satisfaction relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 355–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pellegrini, E. K., & Scandura, T. A. (2008). Paternalistic leadership: a review and agenda for future research. Journal of Management, 34(3), 566–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Perman, S. (2006), “Taking the pulse of family business”, BusinessWeek. N.p., N.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2014.
  40. Quinn, R. E., & Rohrbaugh, J. (1983). A spatial model of effectiveness criteria: towards a competing values approach to organizational analysis. Management Science, 29, 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rodriguez, R. (2008). Latino talent: effective strategies to recruit, retain, and develop Hispanic professionals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  42. Sanchez, D., Whittaker, T. A., Hamilton, E., & Zayas, L. H. (2015). Perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls: the role of psychological distress, sexual attitudes, and marianismo beliefs. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology.Google Scholar
  43. Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership: A dynamic view (2nd ed., ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  44. Segrest, S. L., Romero, E. J., & Domke-Damonte, D. J. (2003). Exploring the role of machismo in gender discrimination: A comparison of Mexico and the U.S. Equal Opportunities International, 22, 13–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Segura-Herrera, T. A., Gloria, A. M., & Nichols, G. C. (2006). “Mexican Americans”, In Y. Jackson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology (pp. 300–306). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  46. Soylu, S. (2011). Creating a family or loyalty-based framework: the effects of paternalistic leadership on workplace bullying. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(2), 217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R. L., & Stapp, J. (1974). The personal attributes questionnaire: a measure of sex roles stereotypes and masculinity-femininity. JSAS: Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 4, 43–44.Google Scholar
  48. Stevens, E. P. (1973). Machismo and marianismo. Society, 10, 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stewart, A., & Hitt, M. A. (2012). Why can’t a family business be more like a nonfamily business? Modes of professionalization in family firms. Family Business Review, 25(1), 58–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stobbe, L. (2005). Doing machismo: legitimating speech acts as a selection discourse. Gender, Work and Organization, 12, 105–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stone, D. L., Johnson, R. D., Stone-Romero, E. F., & Hartman, M. (2006). A comparative study of Hispanic-American and Anglo-American cultural values and job choice preferences. Management Research, 4, 8–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stone, D. L., Stone-Romero, E. F., & Johnson, R. D. (2007). The moderating effect of ethnicity on relations between cultural values and the importance of job attributes. Business Journal of Hispanic Research, 1, 42–53.Google Scholar
  53. Torres, J. B., Solberg, S. H., & Carlstrom, A. H. (2002). The myth of sameness among Latino men and their machismo. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 63–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. U.S. Department of Labor (2011), “Futurework: trends and challenges in the 21st century”, N.p., N.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2014.
  55. Unger, J. B., Ritt-Olson, A., Teran, L., Huang, T., Hoffman, B. R., & Palmer, P. (2002). Cultural values and substance use in a multiethnic sample of California adolescents. Addiction Research and Theory, 10(3), 257–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Weaver, C. N. (2000). Work attitudes of Mexican Americans. Hispanic Journal of Sciences, 22(3), 275–295.Google Scholar
  57. Whitten, B. L., Foster, S. R., Duncombe, M. L., Allen, P. E., Heron, P., McCullough, L., et al. (2004). “’Like a family’: what works to create friendly and respectful student–faculty interactions”. journal of women and minorities in science and engineering. Volucella, 10, 229–242.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa L. Intindola
    • 1
  • Ryan P. Jacobson
    • 2
  • Kathryn J. L. Jacobson
    • 2
  • Robert G. DelCampo
    • 2
  1. 1.Haworth College of BusinessWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA
  2. 2.Anderson School of ManagementUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations