Religious expression in the workplace has been gaining more prominence and attention with the increasing diversity of the population. Employers are legally required to reasonably accommodate the religious practices and beliefs of their employees. This article will examine the most common types of religious expression in the workplace and will discuss the extent of the legal obligation of an employer to accommodate those expressions.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Africa v. Pa., 662 F.2d 1025 (3d Cir. 1981).
Anderson v. OCTA, Calif. Superior Ct., no. 765255, Nov. 19, 1996.
Ansonia Board of Education v. Philbrook, 55 USLW 4019 (1996).
Ashmos, D., & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 134–145.
Bellah, R. N. (1988). Civil religion in America. Daedalus, 117(3), 97–118.
Capaldi, N. (2005). Business and religion: A clash of civilizations?. Salem: M & M Scrivener.
Census Bureau. (2004). Question and Answer Center—Does the census bureau have data for religion? January 21, available at: http://ask.census.gov.
Chalmers v. Tulon Company of Richmond, 101 F.3d 1012 (4th Cir. 1996).
Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. Amos, 483 U.S. 327, 107 S.Ct. 2862 (1997).
Curay-Cramer v. the Ursuline Academy of Wilmington Del, No. 04-4628 (3rd Cir. 2006).
Eck, D. (2001). A new religious America: How a christian country has become the world’s most religiously diverse nation. San Francisco: Harper.
EEOC. (1980). Guidelines on Discrimination because of Religion. 29 CFR 1605, 45 Federal Register 72612, October 31.
EEOC. (2002). Questions and answers about the workplace rights of Muslims, Arabs, South Asians, and Sikhs under the equal employment opportunity laws. May 14, available at: www.eeoc.gov.
EEOC. (2003). Muslim pilot fired due to religion and appearance, EEOC says in post-9/11 backlash discrimination suit. July 17, available at: http://www.eeoc.gov.
EEOC. (2006). Charge statistics FY 1992 through FY2005. Available at: www.eeoc.gov.
French, R. (2003). Shopping for religion: The change in everyday religious practice and its importance to the law. Buffalo Law Review, 51, 127–199.
Fuller, R. C. (1988). Religion and the life cycle. Philadelphia: Fortress.
Gee, R. E. (2006). Plan B, reproductive rights and physician activism. New England Journal of Medicine, 355(1), 4–5.
Golden, D. (2006). A test of faith. Wall Street Journal. January 7–8. A1, A8.
Harrington, W. J., Preziosi, R. C., & Gooden, D. J. (2001). Perceptions of workplace spirituality among professionals and executives. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 13(3), 155–163.
Hicks, D. (2003). Religion and the workplace: Pluralism, Spirituality, Leadership. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kosmin, B., Mayer, E., & Keysar, A. (2001). American religious identification survey 2001. New York: Graduate Center of the City University of New York Available at: www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_studies/aris.pdf.
LaViolette v. Daley, 2000 EEOPUB LEXIS 4858.
Learner, N. (2004). Employers attempt to balance work and religion. Christian Science Monitor, April 12. Available at: http://www.csmonitor.com.
Mead, W. (2006). God’s country. Foreign Affairs, 85(5), 24–43.
Mitroff, I., & Denton, E. (1999). A spiritual audit of corporate America: A hard look at Spirituality, Religion and Values in the Workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
National Conference of State Legislatures (2006). Pharmacist conscience clauses: Laws and legislation—Updated October 2006. Available at: http://www.ncsl.org.
Nolan, J. (2006). Doing the right thing: A Catholic’s guide to faith, business and ethics. Cincinnati: St. Anthony Messenger.
Peterson V. Wilmur Communications, Inc., 205 F.Supp.2d 1014 (2002).
Ritter, J. (2004). The legal definition of religion: From eating cat food to white supremacy. Touro Law Review, 20(3), 751–801.
Rodriguez v. City of Chicago, 156 F.3d 771 (1998).
Rubin, A. (2005). Walgreens suspends pharmacists for refusing to fill a morning after. November 28. Available at: http://www.ksdk.com.
Stewart, K. (2006). Suit says Marriott rejected Muslims. Courier-Journal.com. July 29. Available at: http://www.courier-journal.com.
Swank, D. (2002). Cold fusion confusion: The equal employment opportunity commission’s incredible interpretation of religion in LaViolette v. Daley. Army Lawyer, 74–78, March.
Thomas v. National Association of Letter Carriers and US Postal Service, 225 F.3d 1149 (2000).
Tischler, L. (1999). The growing interest in spirituality in business: A long term socio-economic explanation. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 273–279.
Turpen v. Missouri–Kansas–Texas R.R. Co., 736 F.2d 1022 (5th Cir.1984).
TWA v. Hardison, 432 U.S. 63 (1977).
United States v. Seeger, 380 U.S. 163 (1965).
United States v. Bush, 509 F.2d776 (7th Cir. 1975).
Welsh v. United States, 398 U.S. 333 (1970).
Wilson v. US West Communications 58 F.3d 1337 (8th Cir. 1995).
US Congress. (2007). Workplace Religious Freedom Act of 2007. (H.R. 1431).
US Government. (1964). Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 2000e(j).
Zeinab Ali v. Alamo Rent-A-Car, 2001 U.S.App. LEXIS 3389.
About this article
Cite this article
Kelly, E.P. Accommodating Religious Expression in the Workplace. Employ Respons Rights J 20, 45–56 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10672-007-9059-6
- religious expression