Since 2001, Indonesian schools have implemented a mandatory school-based management (SBM) policy for better quality education in general and more particularly for better school improvement and student achievements. The major purpose of this paper is to explore the conditions of school improvements resulted from SBM policy and programs. In view of the fact that there have limited previous studies to make a valid claim on SBM results for better school environment and student achievements, an empirical survey was conducted in both primary and junior high schools of Denpasar district municipality in Bali, Indonesia. In addition to the survey, qualitative research with focus group discussions and in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the active participation of 43 key school stakeholders, including principals, council members, teachers who experienced in operating school councils, and education department authorities. Results of both quantitative and qualitative data analyses affirm that devolving authority to school level decision-makers has resulted in increased participation and commitment, which led to improved teaching–learning environment. This study suggests the significance of sustainable empowerment on the part of school councils as well as leadership in-service training to school principals for an effective implementation of SBM policy and practices in developing countries.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Similar content being viewed by others
Abreh, M. (2017). Involvement of school management committees in school-based management: Experiences from two districts of Ghana. Educational Planning, 24(2), 61–75.
Abu-Duhou, I. (1999). School-based management. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning (UNESCO).
Antonio, D. M. S., & Gamage, D. T. (2008). Deepening stakeholders” commitment for better schools: A Philippine case-study. Curriculum and Teaching, 23(1), 59–72.
Bandur, A. (2012a). School-based management developments and partnership: Evidence from Indonesia. International Journal of Educational Development, 32(2), 316–328.
Bandur, A. (2012b). School-based management developments: Impacts and challenges. Journal of Educational Administration, 50(6), 845–873.
Bandur, A. (2018). Stakeholders responses to school-based management in Indonesia. International Journal of Educational Management, 32(6), 1082–1098.
Bandur, A., & Gamage, D. T. (2009). SBM policies and programs: Improving teaching-learning environments and student achievements in Indonesia. Education and Society, 27(1), 51–75.
Bandur, A., & Gamage, D. T. (2014). How did school councils in Indonesia improve teaching and learning environments and student achievements? Journal of Applied Research in Education, 18, 15–28.
Barrera-Osorio, F., Fasih, T., & Patrinos, H. A. (2009). Decentralized decision-making in schools. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Bazeley, P., & Jackson, K. (2013). Qualitative data analysis with NVivo. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Beck, L. G., & Murphy, J. (1998). Site-based management and school success: Untangling the variables. School Effectiveness and School Improvement: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, 9(4), 358–385.
Brace, N., et al. (2006). SPSS for psychologist: A guide to data analysis using SPSS for windows. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bush, T., & Gamage, D. (2001). Models of self-governance in schools: Australia and the United Kingdom. International Journal of Educational Management, 15(1), 39–44.
Caldwell, B. J. (2005). School-based management. Retrieved from October 23, 2017. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/.
Caldwell, B. J. (2009). Centralisation and decentralisation in education: A new dimension to policy. In J. Zajda & D. T. Gamage (Eds.), Decentralisation, school-based management, and quality (pp. 53–66). London: Springer.
Caldwell, B. J. (2016). Impact of school autonomy on student achievement: Cases from Australia. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(7), 1171–1187.
Chapman, J. D. (1990). School-based decision-making and management: Implications for school personnel. In J. D. Chapman (Ed.), School-based decision-making and management (pp. 221–244). London: The Falmer Press.
Cheung, S. M. C., & Kan, F. L. F. (2009). Teachers perceptions of incorporated management committees as a form of school-based management in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10, 139–148.
Creswell, J. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New York: Pearson Education Ltd.
Dellar, G. B. (1999). School climate, school improvement and site-based management. Learning Environments Research, 1, 353–367.
Department of Chicago Public Schools. (2016). Local school councils. Retrieved from 2nd July 2017. http://cps.edu/Pages/Localschoolcouncils.aspx.
Education act of the Republic of Indonesia No. 20 2003 on national education system. Retrieved from October 25, 2017. http://www.flevin.com.
Edwards, D. B., Jr. (2018). The trajectory of global education policy: Community-based management in El Salvador and the global reform agenda (International and Development Education series). New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Edwards, D. B., Jr., & DeMatthews, D. E. (2014). Historical trends in educational decentralization in the United States and developing countries: A periodization and comparison in the post-WWII context. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22(40), 1–39.
Fitriah, A., Sumintono, B., Subekti, N. B., & Hassan, Z. (2013). A different result of community participation in education: An Indonesian case study of parental participation in public primary schools. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14(4), 483–493.
Gamage, D., & Zajda, J. (2005a). Decentralisation, delegation and devolution: Towards self-governing schools. Political Crossroads, 12(3), 29–57.
Gamage, D., & Zajda, J. (2005b). Decentralisation and school-based management: A comparative study of self-governing schools models. Educational Practice and Theory, 27(2), 35–58.
Gamage, D.T. (1994). School governance: Australian perspective. In A. Thody (Ed.), School governance: Leaders or followers? (pp. 114–127) Harlow: Longman Group Ltd.
Gamage, D. T. (1996a). An Australian alternative to create more effective schools. Educational Forum, 60, 361–368.
Gamage, D. T. (1996b). School-based management: Theory, research, and practice. Colombo: Karunaratne and Sons Ltd.
Gamage, D. T. (2006a). A comparative study of profiles and perspectives on professional development of school leaders in Australia and Sweden. Education and Society, 24(3), 61–81.
Gamage, D. T. (2006b). Professional development for leaders and managers of self-governing schools. Dordrecht: Springer.
Gamage, D. T. (2007). A comparative study of the policies adopted in developing school-based management models by the ACT, Victoria and NSW in Australia. In The 13th world congress of comparative education societies (WECCES). Sarajevo.
Gamage, D. T., Sipple, P., & Partridge, P. (1996). Research on school-based management in Victoria. Journal of Educational Administration, 34(1), 24–40.
Gamage, D. T., & Sooksomchitra, P. (2004). Decentralisation and school-based management in Thailand. International Review of Education, 50, 289–305.
Gamage, D. T., & Zajda, J. (2009). Decentralisation and school-based Governance: A comparative study of self-governing school models. In J. Zajda & D. T. Gamage (Eds.), Decentralisation, school-based management, and quality (pp. 3–22). London: Springer.
Gurr, D., Drysdale, L., & Mulford, B. (2006). Models of successful principal leadership. School Leadership and Management, 26(4), 371–395.
Heyward, M. O., Cannon, R. A., & Sarjono. (2011a). Implementing school-based management in Indonesia: Impact and lessons learned. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 3(3), 371–388.
Heyward, M., Cannon, R. A., & Sarjono. (2011b). Implementing school-based management in Indonesia. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press.
Ible, W. (2007). School-based management and the operational effectiveness of school councils in Victoria and New South Wales: A comparative study. Callaghan: University of Newcastle Australia.
JICA Research Institute. (2016). Does school-based management change school, students, teachers, and community? Revealing the quantitative assessment results. Retrieved from June 25, 2017. https://www.jica.go.jp/jica-ri/news/topics/post_295.html.
Lane, J. J. (1991). Instructional leadership and community: A perspective on school-based management. Theory into Practice, 30(2), 119–123.
Levacic, R. (2008). Financing schools evolving patterns of autonomy and control. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 36(2), 221–234.
Manning, M.L., & Munro, D. (2006). The survey researcher’s SPSS cookbook. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education.
Ministry of Education Republic of Indonesia. (2016). Ministry regulation on school council. Retrieved from August 20, 2019, http://peraturan.go.id/.
Ministry of Law and Human Rights. (2010). Government regulation no. 66/2010 on education management and governance (revised version of government regulation 17/2010). (2010). Retrieved from September 10, 2019. http://peraturan.go.id/.
Muncey, D. (2014). Guidelines for required school and central advisory committees and school site councils. Los Angeles Unified School District Policy Bulletin (July edition). Retrieved from July 18, 2017. http://notebook.lausd.net.
Nobbs, C. J. S. (2006). The relationship between school-based management, student outcomes, and school performance. Queensland: Griffith University.
NSW Department of Education and Communities. (2011). Independent review of the school- based management pilot. Independent review of the school-based management. Sydney. Retrieved from September 21, 2018 https://data.gov.au.
OECD-UNESCO. (2016). Reviews of national policies for education in Thailand: An OECD-UNESCO perspective. Retrieved from November 1, 2017. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/.
Pang, I. (2008). School-based management in Hong Kong: Centralizing or decentralizing. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 7(1), 17–33.
Parker, L., & Raihani, R. (2011). Democratizing Indonesia through education? Community participation in Islamic schooling. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 39(6), 712–732.
Queensland Department of Education Training and the Arts. (2008). Queensland school reform longitudinal study. Retrieved from September 21, 2018. https://trove.nla.gov.au.
Raab, C. (2000). The devolved management of schools and its implications for governance. In M. Arnott & C. Raab (Eds.), The Governance of schooling: Comparative studies of devolved management (pp. 19–51). London: Routledge Falmer.
Rahim, B. (2019). Decentralized decision making and educational outcomes in public schools: Evidence from Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Management, 33(7), 1625–1640.
Ranson, S., Farrell, C., Peim, N., & Smith, P. (2005). Does governance matter for school improvement. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 16(3), 305–325.
Rutherford, D., & Jackson, L. (2006). Setting up school partnership: Some insights from Birmingham’s collegiate academies. School Leadership and Management, 26(5), 437–451.
Saldaña, J. (2012). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Shoma, V., Vally, G., & Daud, K. (2015). The implementation of school based management policy: An exploration. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172, 693–700.
South Australian Education and Children’s Services (2008). Local governance. Retrieved from August 27, 2018. http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/.
The ACT Department of Education and Training. (2004). Report on evaluation of school based management. ACT: Canberra.
The World Bank. (2011). Implementation of school-based management in Indonesia. Jakarta: The World Bank.
Wilkonsin, N. (2017). School governance. Retrieved from September 10, 2019. https://www.legco.gov.hk/.
The authors appreciate the Research Funding from the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of Republic Indonesia to conduct this research.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Bandur, A., Hamsal, M. & Furinto, A. 21st Century experiences in the development of school-based management policy and practices in Indonesia. Educ Res Policy Prac 21, 85–107 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10671-021-09293-x