# On the Ramsey Test Analysis of ‘Because’

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## Abstract

The well-known formal semantics of conditionals due to Stalnaker (in: Rescher (ed) Studies in logical theory, Blackwell, Oxford, 1968), Lewis (Counterfactuals, Blackwell, Oxford, 1973a), and Gärdenfors (in: Niiniluoto, Tuomela (eds) The logic and 1140 epistemology of scientific change, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978, Knowledge in flux, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1988) all fail to distinguish between trivially and nontrivially true indicative conditionals. This problem has been addressed by Rott (Erkenntnis 25(3):345–370, 1986) in terms of a strengthened Ramsey Test. In this paper, we refine Rott’s strengthened Ramsey Test and the corresponding analysis of explanatory relations. We show that our final analysis captures the presumed asymmetry between explanans and explanandum much better than Rott’s original analysis.

## Notes

### Acknowledgments

Thanks to Andrew Irvine, Hannes Leitgeb, and Hans Rott for very valuable comments on earlier versions of the paper. Special thanks go to the anonymous referees of Erkenntnis for challenging but very constructive comments. Moreover, we are grateful for the opportunity to present parts of this paper at the “2nd Munich Graduate Workshop in Mathematical Philosophy: Formal Epistemology” hosted by the Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy (LMU Munich). This research has been supported by the Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences.

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