, Volume 81, Issue 5, pp 993–1010 | Cite as

Unified Grounding

  • Casper Storm Hansen
Original Article


This paper offers a unification and systematization of the grounding approaches to truth, denotation, classes and abstraction. Its main innovation is a method for “kleenifying” bivalent semantics so as to ensure that the trivalent semantics used for various linguistic elements are perfectly analogous to the semantics used by Kripke, rather than relying on intuition to achieve similarity. The focus is on generalizing strong Kleene semantics, but one section is devoted to supervaluation, and the unification method also extends to weak Kleene semantics.


Definite Description Truth Predicate Class Term Linguistic Resource Closed Term 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I am grateful to Øystein Linnebo, Toby Meadows and two anonymous reviewers for extensive and valuable feedback. This research is supported by the Analysis Trust.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut d’Histoire et de Philosophie des Sciences et des TechniquesUniversité Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne/École Normale Supérieure/Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueParisFrance

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