Advertisement

Environment Systems and Decisions

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 29–41 | Cite as

Review of decision analytic tools for sustainable nanotechnology

  • Vrishali Subramanian
  • Elena Semenzin
  • Danail Hristozov
  • Esther Zondervan-van den Beuken
  • Igor Linkov
  • Antonio Marcomini
Article

Abstract

Nanotechnology innovation is hampered by data gaps and knowledge limitations in evaluating the risks and impacts of nano-enabled products. “Sustainable nanotechnology” is a growing concept in the literature, which calls for a comprehensive evaluation of the risks and impacts of nanotechnology at an early stage of nano-enabled product life cycle. ‘One such method to frame sustainable nanotechnology is the triple bottom line (TBL) approach, which comprises the environmental, economic, and societal “pillars” that contribute to the overall sustainability of a nano-enabled product. For the context of nanotechnology, risk analysis (RA), life cycle assessment (LCA), and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) are frequently called upon to support sustainable nanotechnology governance. This paper provides a systematic review of these tools in the context of sustainable nanotechnology. The results indicate a growing number of applications for these tools with LCA contributing to the environmental and economic pillars, and RA contributing to the environmental pillar. MCDA provides the structural scaffold and mathematical techniques necessary to integrate RA and LCA within the TBL, and also provides the means to address uncertainty of early-stage nanotechnology assessment. Using these tools, integrated sustainability assessment could provide a viable means for industry and regulators to make near-term decisions about complex nanotechnology problems.

Keywords

Sustainability assessment Risk analysis Life cycle assessment Multi-criteria decision analysis Nanotechnology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded in part by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under EC-GA No. 604305 “SUN.” This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the European Commission and other sponsors cannot be held responsible for any use, which may be made of the information contained therein.

References

  1. Andrae AS, Andersen O (2011) Life cycle assessment of integrated circuit packaging technologies. Int J Life Cycle Assess 16:258–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arvidsson R, Kushnir D, Sandén BA, Molander S (2014) Prospective life cycle assessment of graphene production by ultrasonication and chemical reduction. Environ Sci Technol 48:4529–4536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azadnia AH, Saman MZM, Wong KY (2015) Sustainable supplier selection and order lot-sizing: an integrated multi-objective decision-making process. Int J Prod Res 53:383–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bare JC (2002) Traci: the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts. J Ind Ecol 6:49–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauer C, Buchgeister J, Hischier R, Poganietz WR, Schebek L et al (2008) Towards a framework for life cycle thinking in the assessment of nanotechnology. J Clean Prod 16:910–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benoit C (Ed.) (2009) Guidelines for social life cycle assessment of products. UNEP/EarthprintGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergeson LL (2013) Sustainable nanomaterials: emerging governance systems. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 1:724–730Google Scholar
  8. Bonton A, Bouchard C, Barbeau B, Jedrzejak S (2012) Comparative life cycle assessment of water treatment plants. Desalination 284:42–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouillard JX, Vignes A (2014) Nano-Evaluris: an inhalation and explosion risk evaluation method for nanoparticle use. Part I: description of the methodology. J Nanopart Res 16:1–29Google Scholar
  10. Boukherroub T, Ruiz A, Guinet A, Fondrevelle J (2015) An integrated approach for sustainable supply chain planning. Comput Oper Res 54:180–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caliskan H (2013) Selection of boron based tribological hard coatings using multi-criteria decision making methods. Mater Des 50:742–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Canis L, Linkov I, Seager TP (2010) Application of stochastic multiattribute analysis to assessment of single walled carbon nanotube synthesis processes. Environ Sci Technol 44:8704–8711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen YW, Larbani M (2006) Two-person zero-sum game approach for fuzzy multiple attribute decision making problems. Fuzzy Sets Syst 157:34–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chiueh P-T, Y-H LEE, C-Y SU, S-L LO (2011) Assessing the environmental impact of five Pd-based catalytic technologies in removing of nitrates. J Hazard Mater 192:837–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cinelli M, Coles SR, Kirwan K (2014) Analysis of the potentials of multi criteria decision analysis methods to conduct sustainability assessment. Ecol Ind 46:138–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornelissen R, Jongeneelen F, Van Broekhuizen F (2011) Guidance working safely with nanomaterials and products, the guide for employers and employees. The Netherlands, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  17. Cunningham SW, Van Der Lei TE (2009) Decision-making for new technology: a multi-actor, multi-objective method. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 76:26–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dabaghian MR, Hashemi SH, Ebadi T, Maknoon R (2008) The best available technology for small electroplating plants applying analytical hierarchy process. Int J Environ Sci Technol 5:479–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Figueirêdo MCB, Rosa MDF, Ugaya CML, Souza Filho MDSMD, Braid ACCDS et al (2012) Life cycle assessment of cellulose nanowhiskers. J Clean Prod 35:130–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dhingra R, Naidu S, Upreti G, Sawhney R (2010) Sustainable Nanotechnology: through green methods and life-cycle thinking. Sustainability 2:3323–3338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Devika K, Jafarian A, Nourbakhsh V (2014) Designing a sustainable closed-loop supply chain network based on triple bottom line approach: a comparison of metaheuristics hybridization techniques. Eur J Oper Res 235:594–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dobon A, Cordero P, Kreft F, Østergaard S, Robertsson M et al (2011a) The sustainability of communicative packaging concepts in the food supply chain. A case study: part 1. Life cycle assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 16:168–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dobon A, Cordero P, Kreft F, Østergaard SR, Antvorskov H et al (2011b) The sustainability of communicative packaging concepts in the food supply chain. A case study: part 2. Life cycle costing and sustainability assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 16:537–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elkington J (1997) Cannibals with forks: the triple bottom line of twenty-first century business. Capstone, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. Esawi AMK, Farag MM (2007) Carbon nanotube reinforced composites: potential and current challenges. Mater Des 28:2394–2401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fadel TR, Steevens JA, Thomas TA, Linkov I (2014) The challenges of nanotechnology risk management. Nano Today. doi: 10.1016/j.nantod.2014.09.008 Google Scholar
  27. Flari V, Chaudhry Q, Neslo R, Cooke R (2011) Expert judgment based multi-criteria decision model to address uncertainties in risk assessment of nanotechnology-enabled food products. J Nanopart Res 13:1813–1831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fthenakis V, Kim HC, Gualtero S, Bourtsalas A (2009) Nanomaterials in PV manufacture: some life cycle environmental- and health-considerations. 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Philadelphia, USA, pp. 2003–2008Google Scholar
  29. Gavankar S, Suh S, Keller AF (2012) Life cycle assessment at nanoscale: review and recommendations. Int J Life Cycle Assess 17:295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gazquez-Abad JC, Huertas-Garcia R, Vazquez-Gomez MD, Romeo AC (2015) Drivers of sustainability strategies in Spain’s Wine Tourism Industry. Cornel Hosp Q 56:106–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ghazinoory S, Daneshmand-Mehr M, Azadegan A (2013) Technology selection: application of the PROMETHEE in determining preferences-a real case of nanotechnology in Iran. J Oper Res Soc 64:884–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goedkoop M, Spriensma R (1999) The eco-indicator 99, methodology report. A damage oriented LCIA method. VROM, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  33. Goedkoop M, Heijungs R, Huijbregts MAJ, de Schryver A, Struijs J, van Zelm R (2012) ReCiPe 2008—A life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and the endpoint level. First edition (revised) / Report I: Characterisation. VROM—Ministery of Housing Spatial Planning and Environment, Den Haag (the Netherlands)Google Scholar
  34. Govindan K, Azevedo SG, Carvalho H, Cruz-Machado V (2014) Impact of supply chain management practices on sustainability. J Clean Prod 85:212–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grieger KD, Linkov I, Hansen SF, Baun A (2012) Environmental risk analysis for nanomaterials: review and evaluation of frameworks. Nanotoxicology 6:196–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Guinée JB, Gorrée M, Heijungs R, Huppes G, Kleijn R, Koning A de, Oers L van, Wegener Sleeswijk A, Suh S, udo de Haes HA, Bruijn H de, Duin R van, Huijbregts MAJ (2002) Handbook on life cycle assessment. Operational guide to the ISO standards. I: LCA in perspective. IIa: Guide. IIb: Operational annex. III: Scientific background. Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 1-4020-0228-9, Dordrecht, 692 pGoogle Scholar
  37. Hancock NT, Black ND, Cath TY (2012) A comparative life cycle assessment of hybrid osmotic dilution desalination and established seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation processes. Water Res 46:1145–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hansen S (2009) Regulation and risk assessment of nanomaterials—too little, too late?. Technical University of Denmark, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  39. Hellweg S, Demou E, Bruzzi R, Meijer A, Rosenbaum RK et al (2009) Integrating human indoor air pollutant exposure within life cycle impact assessment. Environ Sci Technol 43:1670–1679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hischier R, Walser T (2012) Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials: state of the art and strategies to overcome existing gaps. Sci Total Environ 425:271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Höck J, Epprecht T, Hofmann H, Höhener K, Krug H et al (2008) Guidelines on the precautionary matrix for synthetic nanomaterials. Federal Office for Public Health and Federal Office for the Environment, BernGoogle Scholar
  42. Hristozov D, Gottardo S, Critto A, Marcomini A (2012) Risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials: a review of available data and approaches from a regulatory perspective. Nanotoxicology 6:880–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hristozov DR, Zabeo A, Foran C, Isigonis P, Critto A et al (2014) A weight of evidence approach for hazard screening of engineered nanomaterials. Nanotoxicology 8:72–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hsu L-C, Ou S-L, Ou Y-C (2015) A comprehensive performance evaluation and ranking methodology under a sustainable development perspective. J Bus Econ Manag 16:74–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hull M, Kennedy AJ, Detzel C, Vikesland P, Chappell MA (2012) Moving beyond mass: the unmet need to consider dose metrics in environmental nanotoxicology studies. Environ Sci Technol 46:10881–10882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Institution of Chemical Engineers (ICE) Sustainable Development Working Group (2003) Sustainable development progress metrics. The Institution of Chemical Engineers, RugbyGoogle Scholar
  47. Jansujwicz JS, Johnson TR (2015) The Maine Tidal Power Initiative: transdisciplinary sustainability science research for the responsible development of tidal power. Sustain Sci 10:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jensen KA, Saber AT, Kristensen HV, Koponen IK, Liguori B et al (2013) NanoSafer vs. 1.1—Nanomaterial risk assessment using first order modeling. 6th International Symposium on Nanotechnology, Occupational and Environmental Health: 120Google Scholar
  49. Jolliet O, Margni M, Charles R, Humbert S, Payet J et al (2003) IMPACT 2002+: a new life cycle impact assessment methodology. Int J Life Cycle Assess 8:324–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Keisler JM, Collier ZA, Chu E, Sinatra N, Linkov I (2014) Value of information analysis: the state of application. Environ Syst Decis 34:3–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kim HC, Fthenakis V, Gualtero S, Van Der Meulen R, Kim H (2007) Comparative life-cycle analysis of photovoltaics based on nano-materials: a proposed framework. In: Fthenakis V, Dillon A, Savage N (eds) MRS proceedings, vol 1041. Cambridge University Press, pp R1001–R1004Google Scholar
  52. Kumaraguru S, Rachuri S, Lechevalier D (2014) Faceted classification of manufacturing processes for sustainability performance evaluation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 75:1309–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kurdve M, Zackrisson M, Wiktorsson M, Harlin U (2014) Lean and green integration into production system models—experiences from Swedish industry. J Clean Prod 85:180–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kuzma J, Paradise J, Ramachandran G, Kim JA, Kokotovich A et al (2008) An integrated approach to oversight assessment for emerging technologies. Risk Anal 28:1197–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. LICARA Website. http://www.licara.eu/. Accessed on 25 November 2014
  56. Linkov I, Seager TP (2011) Coupling multi-criteria decision analysis, life-cycle assessment, and risk assessment for emerging threats. Environ Sci Technol 45:5068–5074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Linkov I, Bates ME, Canis LJ, Seager TP, Keisler JM (2011) A decision-directed approach for prioritizing research into the impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health. Nat Nanotechnol 6:784–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Malsch I, Subramanian V, Semenzin E, Hristozov D, Marcomini A (2015) Supporting decision making for sustainable nanotechnology. Environ Syst Decis. doi: 10.1007/s10669-015-9539-4 Google Scholar
  59. Meyer DE, Curran MA, Gonzalez MA (2011) An examination of silver nanoparticles in socks using screening-level life cycle assessment. J Nanopart Res 13:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mohan M, Trump BD, Bates ME, Monica JC, Linkov I (2012) Integrating legal liabilities in nanomanufacturing risk management. Environ Sci Technol 46:7955–7962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mohr NJ, Meijer A, Huijbregts MAJ, Reijnders L (2013) Environmental life cycle assessment of roof-integrated flexible amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon solar cell laminate. Prog Photovolt Res Appl 21:802–815Google Scholar
  62. Money ES, Reckhow KH, Wiesner MR (2012) The use of Bayesian networks for nanoparticle risk forecasting: model formulation and baseline evaluation. Sci Total Environ 426:436–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Money ES, Barton LE, Dawson J, Reckhow KH, Wiesner MR (2014) Validation and sensitivity of the FINE Bayesian network for forecasting aquatic exposure to nano-silver. Sci Total Environ 473–474:685–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mulvihill MJ, Beach ES, Zimmerman JB, Anastas PT (2011) Green chemistry and green engineering: a framework for sustainable technology development. Annu Rev Environ Resour 36:271–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Naidu S, Sawhney R, Li XP (2008) A methodology for evaluation and selection of nanoparticle manufacturing processes based on sustainability metrics. Environ Sci Technol 42:6697–6702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. National Research Council (1983) Risk assessment in a Federal Government: managing the process. The National Academic Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  67. National Research Council (2011) Sustainability and the US EPA. The National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  68. O’brien NJ, Cummins EJ (2011) A risk assessment framework for assessing metallic nanomaterials of environmental concern: aquatic exposure and behavior. Risk Anal 31:706–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Osterwalder N, Capello C, Hungerbühler K, Stark WJ (2006) Energy consumption during nanoparticle production: how economic is dry synthesis? J Nanopart Res 8:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ostiguy C, Riediker M, Triolet J, Troisfontaines P, Vernez D (2010) Development of a specific control banding tool for nanomaterials. Expert committee (CES) on physical agents. French Agency for Food, Environmental, and Occupational Health and Safety, Maisons-Alfort CedexGoogle Scholar
  71. Paik SY, Zalk DM, Swuste P (2008) Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures. Ann Occup Hyg 52:419–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Parlak A, Lambert JH, Guterbock T, Clements J (2012) Population behavioral scenarios influencing radiological disaster preparedness and planning. Accid Anal Prev 48:353–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Popescu VA, Popescu GN, Popescu CR (2015) Competitiveness and sustainability—a modern economic approach to the industrial policy. Metalurgija 54:426–428Google Scholar
  74. Porzio GF, Nastasi G, Colla V, Vannucci M, Branca TA (2014) Comparison of multi-objective optimization techniques applied to off-gas management within an integrated steelwork. Appl Energy 136:1085–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Powers CM, Dana G, Gillespie P, Gwinn MR, Hendren CO, Long TC, Wang A, Davis JM (2012) Comprehensive environmental assessment: a meta-assessment approach. Environ Sci Technol 46:9202–9208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Raza SS, Janajreh I, Ghenai C (2014) Sustainability index approach as a selection criteria for energy storage system of an intermittent renewable energy source. Appl Energy 136:909–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ren D, Colosi LM, Smith JA (2013) Evaluating the sustainability of ceramic filters for point-of-use drinking water treatment. Environ Sci Technol 47:11206–11213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Robichaud CO, Tanzil D, Weilenmann U, Wiesner MR (2005) Relative risk analysis of several manufactured nanomaterials: an insurance industry context. Environ Sci Technol 39:8985–8994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Roes A, Marsili E, Nieuwlaar E, Patel M (2007) Environmental and cost assessment of a polypropylene nanocomposite. J Polym Environ 15:212–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Roes AL, Tabak LB, Shen L, Nieuwlaar E, Patel MK (2010) Influence of using nanoobjects as filler on functionality-based energy use of nanocomposites. J Nanopart Res 12:2011–2028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rosenbaum R, Bachmann T, Gold L, Huijbregts MJ, Jolliet O et al (2008) USEtox—the UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in life cycle impact assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 13:532–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Santoyo-Castelazo E, Azapagic A (2014) Sustainability assessment of energy systems: integrating environmental, economic and social aspects. J Clean Prod 80:119–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schulte PA, Mckernan LT, Heidel DS, Okun AH, Dotson GS et al (2013) Occupational safety and health, green chemistry, and sustainability: a review of areas of convergence. Environ Health 8:9Google Scholar
  84. Şengül H, Theis TL (2011) An environmental impact assessment of quantum dot photovoltaics (QDPV) from raw material acquisition through use. J Clean Prod 19:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shatkin JA (2012) Nanotechnology: health and environmental risks. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  86. Sørensen PB, Giralt F, Rallo R, Espinosa G, Münier B et al (2010) Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part II: a methodological case study for pesticide risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 408:3860–3870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Steinfeldt M, Petschow U, Haum R, Von Gleich A (2004) Nanotechnology and sustainability: prospective assessment of a future key technology. Institute for Ecological Economy Research, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  88. Subramanian V, Semenzin E, Hristozov D, Marcomini A, Linkov I (2014) Sustainable nanotechnology: defining, measuring and teaching. Nano Today 9:6–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sudhakaran S, Lattemann S, Amy GL (2013) Appropriate drinking water treatment processes for organic micropollutants removal based on experimental and model studies—a multi-criteria analysis study. Sci Total Environ 442:478–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Teng K, Thekdi SA, Lambert JH (2012) Identification and evaluation of priorities in the business process of a risk or safety organization. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 99:74–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tervonen T, Linkov I, Figueira JR, Steevens J, Chappell M et al (2009) Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials. J Nanopart Res 11:757–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tsang MP, Bates ME, Madison M, Linkov I (2014) Benefits and risks of emerging technologies: integrating life cycle assessment and decision analysis to assess lumber treatment alternatives. Environ Sci Technol 48:11543–11550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. United Nations Environment Programme (2005). Life cycle approaches: the road form analysis to practice, http://www.unep.fr/shared/publications/pdf/DTIx0594xPA-Road.pdf
  94. van der Meulen R, Alsema E (2011) Life-cycle greenhouse gas effects of introducing nano-crystalline materials in thin-film silicon solar cells. Prog Photovolt Res Appl 19:453–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. van Duuren-Stuurman B, Vink SR, Verbist KJ, Heussen HG, Brouwer DH, et al (2012) Stoffenmanager nano version 1.0: a web-based tool for risk prioritization of airborne manufactured nano objects. Annals of occupational hygiene: mer113Google Scholar
  96. Velmurugan R, Selvamuthukumar S, Manavalan R (2011) Multi criteria decision making to select the suitable method for the preparation of nanoparticles using an analytical hierarchy process. Pharmazie 66:836–842Google Scholar
  97. Web of Science website. http://www.webofscience.com/ Accessed on 25 August 2014
  98. Wu W, Issa R (2015) BIM execution planning in green building projects: LEED as a use case. J Manage Eng 31. Special Issue: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in AEC Organizations: Assessment of Impact on Work Practices, Project Delivery, and Organizational Behavior, A4014007Google Scholar
  99. You H, Connelly EB, Lambert JH, Clarens AF (2014) Climate and other scenarios disrupt priorities in several management perspectives. J Environ Syst Decis 34:540–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yu P, Lee JH (2013) A hybrid approach using two-level SOM and combined AHP rating and AHP/DEA-AR method for selecting optimal promising emerging technology. Expert Syst Appl 40:300–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zalk DM, Paik SY, Swuste P (2009) Evaluating the control banding nanotool: a qualitative risk assessment method for controlling nanoparticle exposures. J Nanopart Res 11:1685–1704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhang X, Shen J, Xu P, Zhao X, Xu Y (2014) Socio-economic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump water heating system in three different climatic regions. Appl Energy 135:20–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vrishali Subramanian
    • 1
  • Elena Semenzin
    • 1
  • Danail Hristozov
    • 1
  • Esther Zondervan-van den Beuken
    • 2
  • Igor Linkov
    • 3
  • Antonio Marcomini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and StatisticsUniversity Ca’ Foscari VeniceVeniceItaly
  2. 2.TNOZeistThe Netherlands
  3. 3.US Army Engineer Research and Development CenterConcordUSA

Personalised recommendations