Environmentalist

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 153–163 | Cite as

Economic Incentives to Conserve Wildlife on Private Lands: Analysis and Policy

Article

Abstract

Some believe that provision of private property rights in wildlife on private land provides a powerful economic incentive for nature conservation because it enables property owners to market such wildlife or its attributes. If such marketing is profitable, private landholders will conserve the wildlife concerned and its required habitat. But land is not always most profitably used for exploitation of wildlife, and many economic values of wildlife (such as non-use economic values) cannot be marketed. The mobility of some wildlife adds to the limitations of the private-property approach. While some species may be conserved by this approach, it is suboptimal as a single policy approach to nature conservation. Nevertheless, it is being experimented with, in the Northern Territory of Australia where landholders had a possibility of harvesting on their properties a quota of eggs and chicks of red-tailed black cockatoos for commercial sale. This scheme was expected to provide an incentive to private landholders to retain hollow trees essential for the nesting of these birds but failed. This case and others are analysed. Despite private-property failures, the long-term survival of some wildlife species depends on their ability to use private lands without severe harassment, either for their migration or to supplement their available resources, for example, the Asian elephant. Nature conservation on private land is often a useful, if not essential, supplement to conservation on public lands. Community and public incentives for such conservation are outlined.

Keywords

Australia biodiversity conservation on private lands economic incentives for conservation markets and wildlife Northern Territory of Australia property rights and conservation South Africa wildlife conservation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, T.L.: 1991, ‘The Market Process and Environmental Amenities,’ in J. Bennett and W. Block (eds.), Reconciling Environment and the Environment, West Perth, Western Australia: Australian Institute of Public Policy, pp. 133–173.Google Scholar
  2. Australian Petlinks Classified ads, http://www.petlink.com.au/Birds/Advertising_Board/index.html Accessed 17.09.04.
  3. Bandara, R. and Tisdell, C.: 2003, ‘Use and Non-Use Values of Wild Asian Elephants,’ Sri Lanka Economic Journal 4(2), 3–20.Google Scholar
  4. Bandara, R. and Tisdell, C.A.: 2004, ‘The Net Benefit of Saving the Asian Elephant: A Policy and Contingent Valuation Study,’ Ecological Economics 48, 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandara, R. and Tisdell, C.A.: 2002, ‘Asian Elephants as Agricultural Pests: Economics of Control and Compensation in Sri Lanka,’ Natural Resources Journal 42, 491–519.Google Scholar
  6. Benson, D.E., Shelton, R. and Steinbach, D.W.: 1999, Wildlife Stewardship and Recreation on Private Lands, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.Google Scholar
  7. Bishop, R.C.: 1987, ‘Economic Values Defined,’ in D.J. Decker and G.R. Goff (eds.), Valuing Wildlife: Economic and Social Perspectives, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 24–33.Google Scholar
  8. Bishop, R.C.: 1981, ‘Economic Considerations Affecting Land-Owner Behaviour,’ in R. Dumke, G.V. Burger and J.R. March (eds.), Wildlife Management on Private Lands, Proceedings of a Symposium: Wildlife Management on Private Lands, 3–6 May 1981, Milwaukee Wisconsin, Printed by La Crosse Printing Co., La Crosse, Wisconsin, 54601, pp. 73–86.Google Scholar
  9. Bishop, R.C.: 1979, ‘Endangered Species, Irreversibility and Uncertainty: A Reply,’ American Journal of Agricultural Economics 61(2), 377–379.Google Scholar
  10. Bishop, R.C.: 1978, ‘Endangered Species and Uncertainty: The Economics of a Safe Minimum Standard,’ American Journal of Agricultural Economics 60(1), 10–18.Google Scholar
  11. Brubaker, E.: 1997, ‘Beyond Quotas: Private Property Solutions to Overfishing,’ in R. Arnason, E. Brubaker, M. De Alessi, K. Erikson, P. Macgillivray, T. McClurg, B. Runolfsson, P. Sprout and M. Walker (eds.), Fish or Cut Bait: The Case for Individual Transferable Quotas in the Salmon Fishery of British Columbia, Fraser Institute, Vancouver, pp. 151–178.Google Scholar
  12. Burger, G.V.: 1973, Practical Wildlife Management, Winchester Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Child, B.: 1996, ‘The Practice and Principles of Community-Based Wildlife Management in Zimbabwe: The CAMPFIRE Programme,’ Biodiversity and Conservation 5, 369–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ciriacy-Wantrup, S.V.: 1968, Resource Conservation: Economics and Policies, 3rd ed., Division of Agricultural Science, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  15. Clark, C.: 1976, Mathematical Bioeconomics: The Optimal Management of Renewable Resources, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Clark, C.: 1973, ‘Profit Maximisation and the Extinction of Animal Species,’ Journal of Political Economy 81, 950–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crosthwaite, J.: 1995, ‘A Review of Potential Financial Incentives to Achieve Nature Conservation Goals on Private and Leasehold Land,’ A. in Bennett, G. Backhouse and T. Clark (eds.), People and Nature Conservation: Perspectives on Private Land Use and Endangered Species Recovery, The Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW, pp. 191–200.Google Scholar
  18. Freese, C.H. and Trauger, D.I.: 2000, ‘Wildlife Markets and Biodiversity Conservation in North America,’ Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(1), 42–51.Google Scholar
  19. Guynn Jr., D.C.: 1997, ‘Ecosystem Management and Wildlife Management Compatible or Conflicting?’ Proceedings Eastern Wildlife Management Conference 7, 7–11.Google Scholar
  20. Lohr, C., Ballard, W.B. and Beth, A.: 1996, ‘Attitudes Toward Gray Wolf Reintroduction to New Brunswick,’ Wildlife Society Bulletin 24, 414–420.Google Scholar
  21. Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory: (no date), A Strategy for Conservation through the Sustainable Use of Wildlife in the Northern Territory of Australia, Palmerston, NT.Google Scholar
  22. Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory: 1996, A Management Programme for Crocodylus porosus and Crocodylus johnstoni in the Northern Territory of Australia, Palmerston, NT.Google Scholar
  23. Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory: 1997, A Management Programme for the Red-Tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii in the Northern Territory of Australia, Palmerston, NT.Google Scholar
  24. Seasholes, B.: 2002, ‘Private conservation of wildlife in Africa,’ Property Rights Foundation of America Inc. http://prfamerica.org/PrivateConservationOfWildlifeInAfrica.html
  25. Smith, R.J.: 1981, ‘Resolving the Tragedy of the Commons by Creating Private Property Rights in Wildlife,’ CATO Journal 1, 438–468.Google Scholar
  26. Tisdell, C.A. and Wilson, C.: 2004, ‘The Public’s Knowledge of and Support for Conservation of Australia’s Tree-Kangaroos and Other Animals,’ Biodiversity and Conservation (in press).Google Scholar
  27. Tisdell, C.A. and Zhu, C.: 1998, ‘Protected Areas, Agricultural Pests and Economic Damage: Conflicts with Elephants and Pests in Yunnan,’ The Environmentalist 18, 109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations