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The ecological views of the Balinese toward their subak cultural landscape heritage


UNESCO declared world cultural landscape heritage to an ancient rice terraces system with a diverse of sustainability values and practices in the Bali Island, called the subak system, to be a World Heritage in 2012. This study examines the views of educated Balinese communities toward the subak ecological system, in response to the lack references regarding public perceptions of the Subak World Heritage in Bali. Participants (n = 912) completed a questionnaire based on a modification of the new ecological paradigm scale. Their views of subak were neutral with respect to human nor environmental orientation. An exploratory factor analysis failed to differentiate between ecocentrism and egocentrism dimensions, indicating a conflict in the perception of the educated Balinese people between preservation and utilization of the subak system. Since this study has its own limitations, which are carefully examined, further research is suggested.

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The authors would like to thank several colleagues at Universitas Mahasaraswati Denpasar, Indonesia, for productive discussions in translating questionnaire from English to Bahasa Indonesia, and vice versa. The authors are also grateful to all participants who contributed significantly in providing data of this study. Special acknowledgement is presented to John Stephen Lansing, I Gusti Agung Sri Rwa Jayantini and our two anonymous reviewers for their generous reviews and suggestions which contributed to the development of this manuscript.


This study was funded by Ministry of Research, Technology and High Education of the Republic of Indonesia Number K.209/C.06.02/UNMAS/II/2018.

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Correspondence to Sang Putu Kaler Surata.

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The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Surata, S.P.K., Puspawati, D.A., Ariati, P.E.P. et al. The ecological views of the Balinese toward their subak cultural landscape heritage. Environ Dev Sustain (2021).

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  • World cultural heritage
  • Ecological views
  • New ecological paradigm
  • Subak system
  • Bali