Skip to main content

The ecological views of the Balinese toward their subak cultural landscape heritage

Abstract

UNESCO declared world cultural landscape heritage to an ancient rice terraces system with a diverse of sustainability values and practices in the Bali Island, called the subak system, to be a World Heritage in 2012. This study examines the views of educated Balinese communities toward the subak ecological system, in response to the lack references regarding public perceptions of the Subak World Heritage in Bali. Participants (n = 912) completed a questionnaire based on a modification of the new ecological paradigm scale. Their views of subak were neutral with respect to human nor environmental orientation. An exploratory factor analysis failed to differentiate between ecocentrism and egocentrism dimensions, indicating a conflict in the perception of the educated Balinese people between preservation and utilization of the subak system. Since this study has its own limitations, which are carefully examined, further research is suggested.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank several colleagues at Universitas Mahasaraswati Denpasar, Indonesia, for productive discussions in translating questionnaire from English to Bahasa Indonesia, and vice versa. The authors are also grateful to all participants who contributed significantly in providing data of this study. Special acknowledgement is presented to John Stephen Lansing, I Gusti Agung Sri Rwa Jayantini and our two anonymous reviewers for their generous reviews and suggestions which contributed to the development of this manuscript.

Funding

This study was funded by Ministry of Research, Technology and High Education of the Republic of Indonesia Number K.209/C.06.02/UNMAS/II/2018.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sang Putu Kaler Surata.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Surata, S.P.K., Puspawati, D.A., Ariati, P.E.P. et al. The ecological views of the Balinese toward their subak cultural landscape heritage. Environ Dev Sustain (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-021-01979-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-021-01979-9

Keywords

  • World cultural heritage
  • Ecological views
  • New ecological paradigm
  • Subak system
  • Bali