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Agricultural GHG emission and calorie intake nexus among different socioeconomic households of rural eastern India


A study was conducted to examine the interrelationships among socioeconomic factors, household consumption patterns, calorie intake and greenhouse gas emissions factors in rural eastern India based on household survey data. Findings indicated that higher monthly per capita incomes (12.1–80.1$) were associated with greater average calorie intakes (2021–2525 kcal d−1). As estimated by the FEEDME model, in total 17.2% of the population was calorie malnourished with a regional disparity of 29.4–18.2% malnourishment. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were calculated only on the basis of crop and livestock production and consumption. Rice accounted for the highest share of total GHG emissions, on average 82.6% on a production basis, which varied from 58.1% to 94.9% in regional basis. Rice contributed the greatest share (~ 65% and 66.2%) in terms of both calories and GHG emissions (CO2 eq y−1), respectively, on a consumption basis. We conclude that extensive rice farming and increasing animal product consumption are dominant factors in the higher carbon footprint in this region and are likely to further increase with increase in per capita income. This study provides useful information to help for better crop planning and for fine-tuning food access policy, to reduce carbon footprint and calorie malnutrition.

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Financial assistances for the conduct of study was provided by Ministry of Earth Sciences, and Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Government of India, New Delhi.

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Correspondence to A. K. Nayak.

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Tripathi, R., Dhal, B., Shahid, M. et al. Agricultural GHG emission and calorie intake nexus among different socioeconomic households of rural eastern India. Environ Dev Sustain 23, 11563–11582 (2021).

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  • Calorie malnutrition
  • Greenhouse gas
  • Monthly per capita income
  • Rice