Wastewater containing phenol is one of the problems that environmental engineering tries to solving it. Cascade reactors are used in water treatment to increase the dissolved oxygen. In this study, this reactor is used for increasing the removal efficiency of phenol treatment in the photocatalytic process. The parameters studied in this research are the initial phenol concentration, UV source power, retention time and flow rate. For the first time, the individual, simultaneous and interactive effects of these four parameters were examined in cascade photocatalytic reactor using the response surface methodology. In this research, a predictive model was presented based on response surface methodology, and the phenol treatment conditions were optimized by this method. According to the results, the optimum removal efficiency occurred at 4.93619 h, with the flow rate of 5.19626 L/min, the initial phenol concentration of 34.7437 mg/L and the UV source power of 40 W. Analysis of variance was done on the experimental data, and its result showed that the UV source power had the most significant effect and that the flow rate had the least significant effect on the removal efficiency. So that by increasing the UV source power from 35 to 55 W, the removal efficiency increased from 54% to approximately 78%. But by increasing the flow rate from 5 to 8 L/min, the removal efficiency increased from about 63% to approximately less than 70%. Prediction of removal efficiency has an uncertainty because of simultaneous and interactive effects of the independent variables on the process; therefore, in this research, Monte Carlo calculations were used to determine the uncertainty of the efficiency prediction. Based on Mont Carlo result, the efficiency will be at the range of 37.542–91.898% at the confidence level of 5–95%. According to the results, this reactor can be used for the treatment of phenolic wastewater.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Akach, J., & Ochieng, A. (2018). Monte Carlo simulation of the light distribution in an annular slurry bubble column photocatalytic reactor. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 129, 248–258.
Aljuboury, D. A. D. A., Palaniandy, P., Abdul Aziz, H. B., & Feroz, S. (2017). Treatment of petroleum wastewater by conventional and new technologies—A review. Global Nest Journal, 19(3), 439–452.
Al-Muhtaseb, A. H., & Khraisheh, M. (2015). Photocatalytic removal of phenol from refinery wastewater: Catalytic activity of Cu-doped titanium dioxide. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 8, 82–90.
Amado-Piña, D., Roa-Morales, G., Barrera-Díaz, C., Balderas-Hernandez, P., Romero, R., Martín del Campo, E., et al. (2017). Synergic effect of ozonation and electrochemical methods on oxidation and toxicity reduction: phenol degradation. Fuel, 198, 82–90.
Amiri, H., Ayati, B., & Ganjidoust, H. (2016). Textile dye removal using photocatalytic cascade disk reactor coated by ZnO nanoparticles. Journal of Marine Science and Chemical Engineering, 4(12), 29–38.
APHA. (2012). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 22nd edition edited by Rice E.W., Baird R.B., Eaton A.D., Clesceri L.S.. American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Environment Federation (WEF), Washington, DC, USA.
Atkinson, Kendall A. (1989). An Introduction to Numerical Analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Ba, D., & Boyaci, I. H. (2007). Modeling and optimization I: Usability of response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 78(3), 836–845.
Baylar, A., Emiroglu, M. E., & Bagatur, T. (2009). Influence of chute slope on oxygen content in stepped waterways. Gazi University Journal of Science, 22(4), 325–332.
Behnajady, M. A., Modirshahla, N., Daneshvar, N., & Rabbani, M. (2007). Photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye in a tubular continuous-flow photoreactor with immobilized TiO2 on glass plates. Chemical Engineering Journal, 127(1–3), 167–176.
Behnajady, M. A., Modirshahla, N., Mirzamohammady, M., Vahid, B., & Behnajady, B. (2008). Increasing photoactivity of titanium dioxide immobilized on glass plate with optimization of heat attachment method parameters. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 160(2–3), 508–513.
Bezerra, M. A., Santelli, R. E., Oliveira, E. P., Villar, L. S., & Escaleira, L. A. (2008). Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta, 76(5), 965–977.
Bizerea Spiridon, O., Preda, E., Botez, A., & Pitulice, L. (2013). Phenol removal from wastewater by adsorption on zeolitic composite. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(9), 6367–6381.
Cao, F., Li, H., Chao, H., Zhao, L., & Guo, L. (2014). Optimization of the concentration field in a suspended photocatalytic reactor. Energy, 74(C), 140–146.
Chapra, S. C. (2008). Surface water-quality modeling. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Chatterjee, S., Kumar, A., Basu, S., & Dutta, S. (2012). Application of response surface methodology for methylene blue dye removal from aqueous solution using low cost adsorbent. Chemical Engineering Journal, 181–182, 289–299.
Cho, W. K. T., & Liu, Y. Y. (2018). Sampling from complicated and unknown distributions: Monte Carlo and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for redistricting. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 506, 170–178.
Dewidar, H., Nosier, S. A., & El-Shazly, A. H. (2017). Photocatalytic degradation of phenol solution using zinc oxide/UV. Journal of Chemical Health and Safety. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchas.2017.06.001.
Emam, E. A., & Aboul-Gheit, N. A. K. (2014). Photocatalytic degradation of oil-emulsion in water/seawater using titanium dioxide. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 36(10), 1123–1133.
Farajnezhad, H., & Gharbani, P. H. (2012). Coagulation treatment of wastewater in petroleum industry using poly aluminium chloride and ferric chloride. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, 13, 306–310.
Fishman, G. S. (1999). MonteCarlo: concepts, algorithms, and applications. Springer Series in Operations Research. New York: Springer.
Gali, V. S., Kumar, P., & Mehrotra, I. (2006). Biodegradation of phenol with wastewater as a cosubstrate in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 132(11), 1539–1542.
Gentle, J. (2002). Elements of computational statistics. New York: Springer.
Girish, C. R., & Ramachandra Murty, V. (2012). Review of various treatment methods for the abatement of phenolic compounds from wastewater. Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering, 54, 306–316.
Hao, S., Jie, Y., Dan, L., Qi, L., Bing, L., et al. (2017). Removal of phenols from coal gasification wastewater through polypropylene hollow fiber supported liquid membrane. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 123, 277–283.
Harrison, R. L. (2010). Introduction to Monte Carlo simulation robert. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1204, 17–21.
Jafari Kojour, M., Dabir, B., Sohrabi, M., & Royaee, S. J. (2017). Evaluation and optimization of a new design photocatalytic reactor using impinging jet stream on a TiO2 coated disc. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 121, 215–223.
Jafari Kojour, M., Dabir, B., Sohrabi, M., & Royaee, S. J. (2018). Application of a new immobilized impinging jet stream reactor for photocatalytic degradation of phenol: Reactor evaluation and kinetic modelling. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2018.03.043.
Jou, C. G., & Huang, G. (2003). A pilot study for oil refinery wastewater treatment using a fixed-film bioreactor. Advances in Environmental Research, 7, 463–469.
Kahil, M., & Seif, H. (2014). Natural wastewater treatment in mountain areas in Lebanon. European Scientific Journal, 10(14), 122–135.
Karimifard, S., & Alavi Moghaddam, M. R. (2018). Application of response surface methodology in physicochemical removal of dyes from wastewater: A critical review. Science of the Total Environment, 640–641, 772–797.
Khaksar, A. M., Nazif, S., Taebi, A., & Shahghasemi, E. (2017). Treatment of phenol in petrochemical wastewater considering turbidity factor by backlight cascade photocatalytic reactor. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 348, 161–167.
Lee, H., Kannan, P., Shoaibi, A., & Srinivasakannan, C. (2019). Phenol degradation catalyzed by metal oxide supported porous carbon matrix under UV irradiation. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 31, 100869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2019.100869.
Ling, H., Kim, K., Liu, Z., Shi, J., Zhu, Z., & Huang, J. (2015). Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in water on as-prepared and surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles. Catalysis Today, 258, 96–102.
Mahmoodi, V., & Sargolzaei, J. (2014). Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of naphthalene using nano-TiO2/UV system: statistical analysis by a response surface methodology. Desalination and Water Treatment, 52(34–36), 6664–6672.
Mehrotra, I., Kumar, P., & Gali, V. (2003). Treatment of phenolic wastewater using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. In Proceedings of national conference on biological treatment of wastewater and waste air, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Trivandrum, India.
Mirzaei, M., Jafarikojour, M., Dabir, B., & Dadvar, M. (2017). Evaluation and modeling of a spinning disc photoreactor for degradation of phenol: Impact of geometry modification. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 346, 206–214.
Mirzaei, A., Yerushalmi, L., Chen, Z., Haghighat, F., & Guo, J. (2018). Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole by zinc oxide photocatalyst in the presence of fluoride ions: Optimization of parameters and toxicological evaluation. Water Research, 132, 241–251.
Mohammadi, S., Kargari, A., Sanaeepur, H., Abbassian, K., Najafi, A., & Mofarrah, E. (2014). Phenol removal from industrial wastewaters: A short review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 53(8), 2215–2234.
Neshat, A., Pradhan, B., & Javadi, S. (2015). Computers, environment and urban systems risk assessment of groundwater pollution using Monte Carlo approach in an agricultural region: An example from Kerman Plain, Iran. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 50, 66–73.
Nguyen, A. T., Hsieh, C., & Juang, R. (2016). Substituent effects on photodegradation of phenols in binary mixtures. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 62, 68–75.
Pasetto, D., Guadagnini, A., & Putti, M. (2011). POD-based Monte Carlo approach for the solution of regional scale groundwater flow driven by randomly distributed recharge. Advances in Water Resources, 34(11), 1450–1463.
Popchev, I., & Velinova, N. (2003). Application of Monte Carlo simulation in pricing of options. Institute of Information Technologies, 3(2), 74–91.
Rathinakumar, V., Dhinakaran, G., & Suribabu, C. R. (2014). Assessment of aeration capacity of stepped cascade system for selected geometry. International Journal of Chem Tech Research, 6(1), 254–262.
Singh, R., Kumar, V., Verma, A., Sobti, A., & Toor, A. P. (2019). Photocatalytic activity of Bi-doped TiO2 for phenol degradation under UV and sunlight conditions. In A. Agnihotri, K. Reddy, & A. Bansal (Eds.), Sustainable engineering. Lecture notes in civil engineering (Vol. 30). Singapore: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6717-5_20.
Sohrabi, S., & Akhlaghian, F. (2016). Modeling and optimization of phenol degradation over copper-doped titanium dioxide photocatalyst using response surface methodology. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 99, 120–128.
Sun, Y., Wei, J., Zhang, J. P., & Yang, C. (2016). Optimization using response surface methodology and kinetic study of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis using SiO2 supported bimetallic Co–Ni catalyst. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 28, 173–183.
Tye, Y. Y., Lee, K. T., Abdullah, W. N. W., & Leh, C. P. (2015). Effects of process parameters of various pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysability of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (Kapok) fibre: A response surface methodology study. Biomass and Bioenergy, 75, 301–313.
Vaiano, V., Matarangolo, M., Murcia, J. J., Rojas, H., Navio, J. A., & Hidalgo, M. C. (2018). Enhanced photocatalytic removal of phenol from aqueous solutions using ZnO modified with Ag. Applied Catalysis, B: Environmental, 225, 197–206.
Varshney, G., Kanel, S. R., Kempisty, D., Varshney, V., & Agrawal, A. (2016). Nanoscale TiO2 films and their application in remediation of organic pollutants. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 306(P1), 43–64.
Veeresh, G. S., Kumar, P., & Mehrotra, I. (2005). Treatment of phenol and cresols in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process: A review. Water Research, 39(1), 154–170.
Vezzoli, M., Martens, W. N., & Bell, J. M. (2011). Investigation of phenol degradation: True reaction kinetics on fixed film titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Applied Catalysis, A: General, 404(1–2), 155–163.
Yilleng, M. T., Gimba, E. C., Ndukwe, G. I., Bugaje, I. M., Rooney, D. W., & Manyar, H. G. (2018). Batch to continuous photocatalytic degradation of phenol using TiO2 and Au–Pd nanoparticles supported on TiO2. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6, 6382–6389.
Zainudin, N. F., Abdullah, A. Z., & Mohamed, A. R. (2010). Characteristics of supported nano-TiO2/ZSM-5/silica gel (SNTZS): Photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 174(1–3), 299–306.
Zazouli, M. A., & Taghavi, M. (2012). Phenol removal from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation technology using iron electrodes: Effect of some variables. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 4, 980–983.
Zhang, W., Bao, L., Zhang, X., He, J., & Wei, G. (2012). Electropolymerization treatment of phenol wastewater and the reclamation of phenol. Water Environment Research, 84(11), 2028–2036.
Zhao, L., Ji, Y., Yao, J., Long, S., Li, D., & Yang, Y. (2017). Quantifying the fate and risk assessment of different antibiotics during wastewater treatment using a Monte Carlo simulation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 168, 626–631.
Zou, X. L. (2015). Treatment of heavy oil wastewater by UASB-BAFs using the combination of yeast and bacteria. Environmental Technology (United Kingdom), 36(18), 2381–2389.
The financial support of this research prepared was done by the Babol Noshirvani University of Technology (Grant No.: BNUT/393016/97), and the authors are grateful for this support.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Azizpour, F., Qaderi, F. Optimization, modeling and uncertainty investigation of phenolic wastewater treatment by photocatalytic process in cascade reactor. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 6315–6342 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00480-8
- Cascade photocatalytic reactor
- Response surface methodology
- Monte Carlo