Sustainable neighborhoods in Brazil: a comparison of concepts and applications

Abstract

Contemporary socioeconomic and environmental situation leads to a depletion of the natural resources and social disparities. This condition is even more dramatic in the developing countries. So, human society becomes dependent on urban planning to make cities and neighborhoods more sustainable. Thinking about the sustainable urban planning in the context of the human society dependency, this study compares three Brazilian neighborhoods, planned as sustainable urban units: Pedra Branca (Santa Catarina), Ilha Pura (Rio de Janeiro) and Jardim das Perdizes (São Paulo). To achieve this purpose, we are performing an analysis, which shows the establishment of common principles to conceptual guidelines of these neighborhoods, as follows: New Urbanism (NU) concepts, which guide Pedra Branca project; Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design—Neighborhood Development Rating System (LEED ND), applied to Ilha Pura; and “Alta Qualidade Ambiental—Bairros e Loteamentos” (AQUA B&L), applied to Ilha Pura and Jardim das Perdizes. We are using a conceptual framework to group five common principles of urban sustainability: local interaction, mobility, mixed use, natural resources and innovation, and socioeconomic participation. These principles are used as a common base to proceed to a comparison between the neighborhoods. Findings are showing that the NU concepts are wider in applications and imprecise, concerning social aspects, while LEED is more detailed and comprehensive, but more focused on the environmental aspects, as for AQUA—it is more equalized and adapted to the Brazilian context, even though it is narrowed in performance. About Brazilian neighborhood, Pedra Branca, it is more comprehensive in socioeconomic and environmental aspects, but less technological than Ilha Pura and Jardim das Perdizes. Nevertheless, this study suggests that sustainable neighborhoods could encourage Brazilian eco-friendly cities’ development by incorporating active participation from the public stakeholders, ensuring to cover all social and economic segments to mitigate social disparities.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Source: (“Pedra Branca Cidade Criativa” 2015)

Fig. 3

Adapted from Ribeiro (2009)

Fig. 4

Adapted from GBC Brasil (2018)

Fig. 5

adapted from Fundação Vanzolini (2018)

Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Source: “Ilha Pura,” (2016)

Fig. 8

Source: Brasil (2019)

Fig. 9
Fig. 10

Source: Google Earth

Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

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Vilela, A.P.L., Reboita, M.S., Silva, L.F. et al. Sustainable neighborhoods in Brazil: a comparison of concepts and applications. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 6001–6028 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00439-9

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Keywords

  • Sustainable neighborhoods
  • Sustainable labeling system
  • Inducing development
  • Sustainable framework