Pastoralism is often associated with a particular group of people or ethnic group whose livelihoods are mainly based on livestock production in the rangelands. With changing climatic conditions as a driving force of desertification and the mounting pressure on land due to population growth, the livestock-based livelihood strategy of pastoralism is rapidly becoming unsustainable. This study examines the impact of environmental hazards and violent conflicts on pastoral sustainability. The analysis using instrumental variable regression revealed two key findings. First, hazards and violent conflicts have strong negative effects on livestock holding. These effects can be found across all pastoral households with various sizes of livestock holding. Second, the loss of livestock is negatively affecting some critical indicators of welfare, such as income and per capita expenditure. In this sense, reducing both environmental hazards and violent conflicts is key to sustainable pastoral development. While there is a need to incorporate pastoral sustainability into the sustainable environment agenda, sustainable pastoral development not only depends on the pace but how effectively anti-climatic change, rural policing, poverty reduction and rangeland management policies are implemented.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Aliero, H. M., & Ibrahim, S. S. (2012). An analytical review of financial intermediation in the rural areas of Nigeria. In M. Muktar (Ed.), Studies in the state of the Nigerian economy (pp. 323–333). Katsina: Umaru Musa Yar’adua University.
Aliero, H. M., & Ibrahim, S. S. (2013). The challenges of youth empowerment through access to credit in the rural areas of Nigeria. European Journal of Sustainable Development,2(3), 25–34.
Ayantunde, A. A., Asse, R., Said, M. Y., & Fall, A. (2014). Transhumant pastoralism, sustainable management of natural resources and endemic ruminant livestock in the sub-humid zone of West Africa. Environment, Development and Sustainability,16(5), 1067–1117.
Ayantunde, A. A., de Leeuw, J., Turner, M. D., & Said, M. (2011). Challenges of assessing the sustainability of (agro-)pastoral systems. Livestock Science,139(1), 30–43.
Behnke, R. H. (2008). The economic contribution of pastoralism: Case studies from the horn of Africa and Southern Africa. Nomadic Peoples,12(1), 45–79.
Bollig, M. (2006). Risk management in a hazardous environment: A comparative study of two pastoral societies (pp. 1–442). New York: Springer.
Cecchi, F., & Melesse, M. B. (2016). Formal law and customary change: A lab-in-field experiment in Ethiopia. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,125, 67–85.
Chernozhukov, V., & Hansen, C. (2013). Quantile regression models with endogeneity. Annual Review of Economics,5, 57–81.
Denney, J. M., Case, P. M., Metzger, A., Ivanova, M., & Asfaw, A. (2018). Power in participatory processes: Reflections from multi-stakeholder workshops in the Horn of Africa. Sustainability Science,13(3), 879–893.
Devuyst, D., & Hens, L. (2000). Introducing and measuring sustainable development initiatives by Local Authorities in Canada and Flanders (Belgium): A comparative study. Environment, Development and Sustainability,2(2), 81–105.
Ducrotoy, M. J., Majekodunmi, A. O., Shaw, A. P. M., Bagulo, H., Musa, U. B., Bertu, W. J., et al. (2016). Fulani cattle productivity and management in the Kachia Grazing Reserve, Nigeria. Pastoralism,6(2), 25.
FAO. (2001). Pastoralism in the new millennium. Animal Production and Health Paper No. 150, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
Haller, T., van Dijk, H., Bollig, M., Greiner, C., Schareika, N., & Gabbert, C. (2016). Conflicts, security and marginalisation: institutional change of the pastoral commons in a ‘glocal’ world. Revue Scientifique et Technique International Office of Epizootics,35(2), 405–416.
Herskovits, M. J. (1926). The cattle complex in East Africa. American Anthropologist,28(1), 230–272.
Ibrahim, S. S., Ibrahim, A., Na-Allah, A., & Saulawa, L. A. (2016). Building of a community cattle ranch and radio frequency identification (RFID) technology as alternative methods of curtailing cattle rustling in Katsina State. Pastoralism,6(1), 10.
Ibrahim, S. S., Ozdeser, H., & Cavusoglu, B. (2018). Vulnerability to recurrent shocks and disparities in gendered livelihood diversification in remote areas of Nigeria. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,26, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3854-5.
IPCC. (2014) Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability, Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.
Lambert-Derkimba, A., Aubron, C., Ickowicz, A., Touré, I., & Moulin, C. H. (2016). An innovative method to assess the sustainability of pastoral systems in their territories (PSSAF). Revue d’Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux,68(2–3), 135–142.
McCabe, J. T., Smith, N. M., Leslie, P. W., & Telligman, A. L. (2014). Livelihood diversification through migration among a pastoral people: contrasting case studies of Maasai in Northern Tanzania. Human Organization,73(4), 389–400.
Mulugeta, A., & Hagmann, T. (2008). Governing violence in the pastoralist space: Karrayu and state notions of cattle raiding in the Ethiopian Awash Valley. Afrika Focus,21(2), 71–87.
Niamir-Fuller, M. (2016). Towards sustainability in the extensive and intensive livestock sectors. Revue Scientifique et Technique International Office of Epizootics,35(2), 371–387.
Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika,70, 41–55.
Theisen, O. M., Gleditsch, N. P., & Buhaug, H. (2013). Is climate change a driver of armed conflict? Climatic Change,117(3), 613–625.
Tibesigwa, B., Visser, M., Collinson, M., & Twine, W. (2016). Investigating the sensitivity of household food security to agriculture-related shocks and the implication of social and natural capital. Sustainability Science,11(2), 193–214.
Wooldridge, J. M. (2010). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Data collection was supported by Tertiary Education Trust Fund. We would like to commend the editors and three anonymous reviewers for providing insightful and constructive comments on an earlier version of this article.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
See Table 8.
About this article
Cite this article
Ibrahim, S.S., Ozdeser, H. & Cavusoglu, B. Testing the impact of environmental hazards and violent conflicts on sustainable pastoral development: micro-level evidence from Nigeria. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 4169–4190 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00377-6
- Violent conflicts