Testing the impact of environmental hazards and violent conflicts on sustainable pastoral development: micro-level evidence from Nigeria

Abstract

Pastoralism is often associated with a particular group of people or ethnic group whose livelihoods are mainly based on livestock production in the rangelands. With changing climatic conditions as a driving force of desertification and the mounting pressure on land due to population growth, the livestock-based livelihood strategy of pastoralism is rapidly becoming unsustainable. This study examines the impact of environmental hazards and violent conflicts on pastoral sustainability. The analysis using instrumental variable regression revealed two key findings. First, hazards and violent conflicts have strong negative effects on livestock holding. These effects can be found across all pastoral households with various sizes of livestock holding. Second, the loss of livestock is negatively affecting some critical indicators of welfare, such as income and per capita expenditure. In this sense, reducing both environmental hazards and violent conflicts is key to sustainable pastoral development. While there is a need to incorporate pastoral sustainability into the sustainable environment agenda, sustainable pastoral development not only depends on the pace but how effectively anti-climatic change, rural policing, poverty reduction and rangeland management policies are implemented.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Aliero, H. M., & Ibrahim, S. S. (2012). An analytical review of financial intermediation in the rural areas of Nigeria. In M. Muktar (Ed.), Studies in the state of the Nigerian economy (pp. 323–333). Katsina: Umaru Musa Yar’adua University.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Aliero, H. M., & Ibrahim, S. S. (2013). The challenges of youth empowerment through access to credit in the rural areas of Nigeria. European Journal of Sustainable Development,2(3), 25–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ayantunde, A. A., Asse, R., Said, M. Y., & Fall, A. (2014). Transhumant pastoralism, sustainable management of natural resources and endemic ruminant livestock in the sub-humid zone of West Africa. Environment, Development and Sustainability,16(5), 1067–1117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ayantunde, A. A., de Leeuw, J., Turner, M. D., & Said, M. (2011). Challenges of assessing the sustainability of (agro-)pastoral systems. Livestock Science,139(1), 30–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Behnke, R. H. (2008). The economic contribution of pastoralism: Case studies from the horn of Africa and Southern Africa. Nomadic Peoples,12(1), 45–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bollig, M. (2006). Risk management in a hazardous environment: A comparative study of two pastoral societies (pp. 1–442). New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Cecchi, F., & Melesse, M. B. (2016). Formal law and customary change: A lab-in-field experiment in Ethiopia. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,125, 67–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Chernozhukov, V., & Hansen, C. (2013). Quantile regression models with endogeneity. Annual Review of Economics,5, 57–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Denney, J. M., Case, P. M., Metzger, A., Ivanova, M., & Asfaw, A. (2018). Power in participatory processes: Reflections from multi-stakeholder workshops in the Horn of Africa. Sustainability Science,13(3), 879–893.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Devuyst, D., & Hens, L. (2000). Introducing and measuring sustainable development initiatives by Local Authorities in Canada and Flanders (Belgium): A comparative study. Environment, Development and Sustainability,2(2), 81–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Ducrotoy, M. J., Majekodunmi, A. O., Shaw, A. P. M., Bagulo, H., Musa, U. B., Bertu, W. J., et al. (2016). Fulani cattle productivity and management in the Kachia Grazing Reserve, Nigeria. Pastoralism,6(2), 25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. FAO. (2001). Pastoralism in the new millennium. Animal Production and Health Paper No. 150, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

  13. Haller, T., van Dijk, H., Bollig, M., Greiner, C., Schareika, N., & Gabbert, C. (2016). Conflicts, security and marginalisation: institutional change of the pastoral commons in a ‘glocal’ world. Revue Scientifique et Technique International Office of Epizootics,35(2), 405–416.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Herskovits, M. J. (1926). The cattle complex in East Africa. American Anthropologist,28(1), 230–272.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Ibrahim, S. S., Ibrahim, A., Na-Allah, A., & Saulawa, L. A. (2016). Building of a community cattle ranch and radio frequency identification (RFID) technology as alternative methods of curtailing cattle rustling in Katsina State. Pastoralism,6(1), 10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Ibrahim, S. S., Ozdeser, H., & Cavusoglu, B. (2018). Vulnerability to recurrent shocks and disparities in gendered livelihood diversification in remote areas of Nigeria. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,26, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3854-5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. IPCC. (2014) Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability, Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.

  18. Lambert-Derkimba, A., Aubron, C., Ickowicz, A., Touré, I., & Moulin, C. H. (2016). An innovative method to assess the sustainability of pastoral systems in their territories (PSSAF). Revue d’Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux,68(2–3), 135–142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. McCabe, J. T., Smith, N. M., Leslie, P. W., & Telligman, A. L. (2014). Livelihood diversification through migration among a pastoral people: contrasting case studies of Maasai in Northern Tanzania. Human Organization,73(4), 389–400.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Mulugeta, A., & Hagmann, T. (2008). Governing violence in the pastoralist space: Karrayu and state notions of cattle raiding in the Ethiopian Awash Valley. Afrika Focus,21(2), 71–87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Niamir-Fuller, M. (2016). Towards sustainability in the extensive and intensive livestock sectors. Revue Scientifique et Technique International Office of Epizootics,35(2), 371–387.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika,70, 41–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Theisen, O. M., Gleditsch, N. P., & Buhaug, H. (2013). Is climate change a driver of armed conflict? Climatic Change,117(3), 613–625.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Tibesigwa, B., Visser, M., Collinson, M., & Twine, W. (2016). Investigating the sensitivity of household food security to agriculture-related shocks and the implication of social and natural capital. Sustainability Science,11(2), 193–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Wooldridge, J. M. (2010). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Data collection was supported by Tertiary Education Trust Fund. We would like to commend the editors and three anonymous reviewers for providing insightful and constructive comments on an earlier version of this article.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Saifullahi Sani Ibrahim.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendix A

Appendix A

See Table 8.

Table 8 Variables used for measuring the components of environmental hazards

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ibrahim, S.S., Ozdeser, H. & Cavusoglu, B. Testing the impact of environmental hazards and violent conflicts on sustainable pastoral development: micro-level evidence from Nigeria. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 4169–4190 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00377-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Hazards
  • Pastoralism
  • Sustainability
  • Violent conflicts