This manuscript brings out with an enhancement of the freshwater productivity from the active inclined solar panel basin solar still (AISPBSS). The research was conducted on the AISPBSS by the diversified mass flow rate of water (mf). The maximum freshwater yield obtained at mf at 1.8, 3.2 and 4.7 kg/h is 7.5, 6.5 and 5.4 kg, respectively. The daily average thermal and exergy efficiency of the AISPBSS at mf at 1.8, 3.2 and 4.7 kg/h is 43.71, 38.27 and 29.62% and 8.39, 6.94 and 5.08%, respectively. The daily average PV panel power production of 47.71, 49.84 and 53.83 watts, electrical efficiency of 7.2, 7.6 and 8.1%, thermal efficiency of 17.3, 18.3 and 19.7%, exergy efficiency of 18.32, 20.23 and 22.39%, the overall thermal efficiency of 61.39, 57.44 and 51.37% and the overall exergy efficiency of 26.52, 27.14 and 27.40% are obtained from the system under mf at 1.8, 3.2 and 4.7 kg/h, respectively. When mf increases, there are decreases in the AISPBSS distillate yield, thermal, exergy and the overall thermal efficiency and increases in the PV panel power production and electrical, thermal, exergy and the overall exergy efficiency. Further, energy return term and carbon credit attained for the AISPBSS have been calculated. It was found that payback period of 20, 18.7 and 17.5 years and carbon credit earned of 21, 25 and 30 $ are obtained at mf at 1.8, 3.2 and 4.7 kg/h, respectively.
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Conventional solar still
Evaporative heat transfer coefficient
Energy payback period
Active inclined solar panel basin solar still
Inclined solar still
Inclined wick solar still
Pyramid solar still
Stepped solar still
Vertical flat-plate reflector
- A :
- A :
Area of solar panel (m2)
- CO2 :
- E :
- E in :
Embodied energy (kWh)
- E out :
Annual energy output (kWh)
Exergy input of solar still (W/m2)
Exergy output of solar still (W/m2)
- H :
Monthly average irradiation on PV panels
- h :
Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)
- I :
- I (t):
Solar intensity (W/m2)
- L :
Life of the system (years)
- L fg :
Latent heat of vaporization (kJ/kg K)
- m ew :
Hourly productivity from solar still (kg/m2 h)
- m f :
Mass flow rate (kg/h)
- P :
Performance ratio, coefficient for losses (range between 0.9 and 0.5, default value = 0.75)
- r :
Solar panel efficiency (%)
- T :
- V :
- η overall,exe :
Overall exergy effectiveness (%)
- η pv :
Solar panel effectiveness (%)
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|S. no.||Instrument||Uncertainty (%)|
|1.||TES 1333R solar power meter||2.51|
|2.||AM4836 3 cup anemometer||3.32|
|3.||Thermocouple (RTD (PT100 type))||1.53|
The uncertainty of instruments is calculated based on the internal uncertainty of instrument (U) and average values of experimental results (X). The value of U is mathematically expressed as,
Similarly, the value of σ (standard deviation) is expressed as,
The uncertainty (%) is calculated as,
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Manokar, A.M., Vimala, M., Sathyamurthy, R. et al. Enhancement of potable water production from an inclined photovoltaic panel absorber solar still by integrating with flat-plate collector. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 4145–4167 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00376-7
- Photovoltaic panel-integrated solar still
- Mass flow rates
- Panel efficiency
- PV thermal and exergy analysis
- Energy payback period
- Carbon credit earned