The rapid increase of residential buildings in Kuwait is a major contributor in resource consumption, waste generation and CO2 emissions. This paper aims to introduce a new concept of green buildings in Kuwait for saving water, energy and using eco-friendly materials in residential houses to develop more sustainable and high-performance buildings. For the purpose of evaluating the conventional buildings impacts and clarifying the resident’s awareness towards the green building concept, a survey questionnaire was designed using Google Forms. In addition, a case study of converting a conventional building into a green building was studied, with assurance that the owner requirements were implemented. The overall water saved (in terms of consumption and bill cost) was 46%. Energy waste from light consumption was reduced by approximately 86% by using LED lights, timers and sensors, with annual cost savings of 54%. Due to this reduction, a great decrease in CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions was achieved (approximately 65,893 kg per year). Moreover, two different design software tools (HAP and SketchUp) were applied for HVAC cooling loads and PV panels, respectively. By installing high-quality insulation and ducts and double-glass low-e windows, the HVAC cooling load was reduced by approximately 25%, which contributed to the decrease in greenhouse gas emissions (approximately 90,262 kg per year). The annual electricity production generated from the PV panel system was 6770 kW h. To enhance indoor air quality, an eco-friendly paint was used as an alternative to normal paint, resulting in an 88% reduction in VOCs.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Landscape water requirement
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers
Environmental Protection Agency
Gulf Cooperation Council
Hourly Analysis Program
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Ministry of Electricity and Water
United Nations Statistics Division
United States Green Building Council
Volatile Organic Compound
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
Dubai Airport Free Zone Authority
Ahn, Y. H., & Pearce, A. R. (2013). Green luxury: A case study of two green hotels. Journal of Green Building,8, 90–119. https://doi.org/10.3992/jgb.8.1.90.
Alalouch, C., Saleh, M. S., & Al-Saadi, S. (2016). Energy-efficient house in the GCC region. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences,216, 736–743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.12.071.
Aleisa, E., & Al-Jarallah, R. (2013). Investigating causes contributing to increased municipal solid waste in Kuwait: a national survey. Journal of Engineering Research,1, 123–143.
Al-Odwani, A., Ahmed, M., & Bou-Hamad, S. (2007). Carwash water reclamation in Kuwait. Desalination,206, 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2006.03.560.
Alshawaf, M. (2008). Evaluating the economic and environmental impacts of water subsidies in Kuwait. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Louisiana State University.
Alsulaili, A., AlSager, B., Albanwan, H., Almeer, A., & AlEssa, L. (2014). An integrated solid waste management system in Kuwait. In 5th international conference on environmental science and technology IPCBEE (p. 12), Singapore: IACSIT Press.
Alsulaili, A. D., Hamoda, M. F., Al-Jarallah, R., & Alrukaibi, D. (2017). Treatment and potential reuse of greywater from schools: A pilot study. Water Science and Technology,75, 2119–2129. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2017.088.
Baldwin, A. N., Loveday, D. L., Li, B., Murray, M., & Yu, W. (2018). A research agenda for the retrofitting of residential buildings in China—A case study. Energy Policy,113, 41–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.10.056.
Darwish, M. A., & Al-Najem, N. (2005). The water problem in Kuwait. Desalination, 177(1–3), 167–177.
Earth System Research Laboratory. (2018). What is the global greenhouse gas reference network? Global Monitoring Division, USA. 02 August 2018. https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/about.html.
Franzoni, E., Volpi, L., Bonoli, A., Spinelli, R., & Gabrielli, R. (2018). The environmental impact of cleaning materials and technologies in heritage buildings conservation. Energy and Buildings,165, 92–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.01.051.
Hall, S. (2010). Assessment of the performance of green commercial buildings: A sustainable built environment national research centre literature review. On: Curtin University and Queensland University of Technology (2010).
Hamoda, M. F. (2001). Desalination and water resource management in Kuwait. Desalination,138, 385–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0011-9164(01)00288-0.
International Monetary Fund. (2015). Energy Price Reform in Kuwait—What can be learned from international experience. In IMF Country Report No. 15/328.
Jerie, S. (2014). Analysis of enterprise profile and composition of solid waste generated in the informal sector of Gweru Zimbabwe. Journal Waste Management,2014, 113. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/865854.
Kim, J. -J., & Rigdon, B. (eds.) (1998). Sustainable architecture module: Qualities, use, and examples of sustainable building materials. In National pollution prevention center for higher education. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.
Lattemann, S., & Höpner, T. (2008). Environmental impact and impact assessment of seawater desalination. Desalination, 220, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.03.009. http://www.dafz.ae/en/OurServices/PublishedCaseStudy/A%20Case%20Study.
Milutinovic, M. (2006). Water demand management in Kuwait (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology).
Ministry of Electricity and Water. (2015). Statistical yearbook: Electrical energy. Kuwait: Ministry of Electricity and Water.
Ministry of Electricity and Water. (2016). Statistical yearbook: Electrical Energy. Kuwait: Ministry of Electricity and Water.
Nair, M., & Kumar, D. (2013). Water desalination and challenges: The middle east perspective: A review. Desalination and Water Treatment,51, 2030–2040. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.734483.
Qader, M. R. (2009). Electricity consumption and GHG emissions in GCC countries. Energies,2, 1201–1213. https://doi.org/10.3390/en20401201.
Ramadhan, M., & Hussain, A. (2012). Kuwait energy profile for electrical power generation. Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment,32, 18–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/10485236.2012.10531825.
Renewable Energy World. (2009). Shade happens, R.J. Muenster, USA. 02 August 2018. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/articles/2009/02/shade-happens-54551.html.
Sheth, K. (2016). Sustainable building materials used in green buildings. In 9th international conference on engineering and business education, Bangkok (Thailand), 27–28 April 2016.
Singh, S. (2006). A study of organic building materials in residential constructions. Doctoral dissertation, M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat.
Taleb, H. M., & Sharples, S. (2011). Developing sustainable residential buildings in Saudi Arabia: A case study. Applied Energy,88, 383–391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.07.029.
U. S. Green Building Council. (2015). Leed practices case study Dafza Square. L. Raval, USA. 02 August 2018.
U.S. Green Building Council. (2016). Benefits of green building, USA 02 August 2018. https://www.usgbc.org/articles/green-building-facts.
Zhang, L., Wu, J., & Liu, H. (2018). Turning green into gold: A review on the economics of green buildings. Journal of Cleaner Production,172, 2234–2245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.11.188.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Alsulaili, A.D., Al-Matrouk, M.F., Al-Baghli, R.A. et al. Environmental and economic benefits of applying green building concepts in Kuwait. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 3371–3387 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00352-1
- Residential houses
- Water savings
- Energy savings
- Eco-friendly materials